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Applied Psychology and Human Development

Course List

 

Not all courses are offered each year. Please consult the course schedules available from the Registrar’s Office. Click on course name and code for full description.

APD1202 H
Theories and Techniques of Counselling
An appraisal of a number of basic theories of counselling and approaches to inducing client change. Full-time Guidance and Counselling students may take APD1202H concurrently with APD1203Y. Counselling students will have priority for enrolment in this course.

APD1203 Y
Practicum I: Interventions in Counselling Psychology
This course is intended to provide students with basic skills in clinical assessment and counselling interventions. Among others, issues related to the assessment of risk, history taking, clinical formulation and the relationship between assessment and intervention will be addressed. Basic counselling interventions such as empathic responding, exploration of client's affect and cognitions and problem solving will be explored. The course emphasizes the therapeutic relationship as well as the importance of ethical and legal issues in the provision of therapy. While the course presents didactic material, students have extensive opportunity to role play, and improve self-knowledge as well as issues related to boundary maintenance, power relationships in the provision of therapy and future self-development are also examined. This course involves sequenced skill training, with extensive counselling simulation and supervision of practice in a field setting. In addition to regular class meetings and time spent in group supervision with the instructor, M.Ed. students in Counselling are required to be in attendance one full day per week at their practicum settings. Some students may spend two full days in their practicum setting. MA students are required to be in attendance at least 2 full days per week at their practicum settings. All full and part-time students must arrange their practica in consultation with the department's Coordinator of Internship and Counselling Services. Continuing students should plan to contact the Coordinator by March 15th and new students by May 15th in order to arrange the best match between student needs and field placement availability. The Counselling committee reserves the right to make any final decisions when questions arise concerning the placement of a student in a setting. Note: Part-time students must be available one full week-day per week to fulfill the practicum requirement. Note: All counselling practica must be done through OISE. Practica done at other universities will not be considered as substitutes. Prerequisite: APD1202H, for Counselling students only. Full-time Counselling students may take APD1203Y concurrently with APD1202H.

APD1205 H
Ethical Issues in Applied Psychology
This course provides students with an overview of legal, ethical and professional issues as they relate to the practice of psychology. The current regulatory model of psychology in Ontario and its implications for practice are reviewed. The Canadian Code of Ethics, College of Psychologists' Standards of Professional Conduct, federal and provincial legislation and case law that apply to practice in Ontario are reviewed as they relate to issues of confidentiality, record keeping, consent, competence, professional boundaries, and diversity issues in assessment, psychotherapy, and research. Throughout the course, a model of ethical decision-making designed to assist practitioners with ethical dilemmas is reviewed and practised with a variety of case examples in the context of small and large-group discussion.

APD1207 H
Counselling Topics in Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Diversity
This course will review the research findings and clinical case literature in selected areas of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender psychology with reference to their implications for professional practice in counselling psychology. Particular emphasis will be given to the clinical and research implications of sexual orientation identity acquisition, hate crime victimization, same sex domestic violence, HIV/AIDS, gender dysphoria and alcohol and substance use. Students will come to a greater appreciation and understanding of the special counselling needs of clients from differing sexual orientations and gender identities through a combination of lectures, seminar presentations, discussions, bibliographic and Internet research and original student research projects.

APD1209 H
Research Methods and Thesis Preparation in Applied Psychology and Human Development [RM]
This course reviews foundational skills necessary for the successful completion of the MA thesis. The primary goals will be to develop the following: the ability to draw valid conclusions from quantitative evidence; the ability to critique published research articles; the ability to conduct a well designed piece of research and the ability to write up research in a format appropriate for a journal article or thesis. The course deals with research methods, the conceptual foundations of statistics, and the preparation of a thesis/research report. The aim is to try to integrate these three things (research methods, the interpretation of statistics, and thesis/journal article preparation).

APD1211 H
Psychological Foundations of Early Development and Education
This course examines research on the psychological foundations of early childhood and relates those foundations to practice in the preschool and primary years. Early education is considered in relation to program factors such as teachers' beliefs and curriculum areas as well as child and family factors such as temperament and attachment and social factors such as childcare experience and community. Young children's physical, cognitive, communicative, social and emotional development are explored as contributors to and as consequences of early learning experiences.

APD1214 H
Critical Multicultural Practice: Diversity Issues in Counselling
The course is designed to introduce students to the field of counselling in the context of a multi-cultural, multi-ethnic, multi-faith, multi-racial, multi-gendered and multi-abled society. The course seeks to define and locate multicultural counselling studies within the broader historical, economic, social and political contexts of mental health care. Through a critical examination of 'race', gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, disability and social class, students will establish an understanding of the theoretical and conceptual ideas that form the basis of practice with minority clients. Key concepts such as identity and multiple identities, power, stereotyping, discrimination, prejudice and oppression will be explored in relation to women, Aboriginal and ethnic minorities, LGBT and disabled clients. Through discussions, seminar presentations and experiential learning, the course will support the development of appropriate counselling skills and competencies to practice in a clinically anti-oppressive way. Prerequisite is APD1202; co-requisite is APD1203Y.

APD1215 H
Psychological Assessment of School-Aged Children
The purpose of this course is to gain an understanding of the basic principles of psychological assessment and to acquire administration skills with respect to several widely used standardized tests of intelligence, academic achievement and special abilities. Topics will include the history of intelligence testing, contextual issues surrounding the assessment process, basic statistical concepts related to psychometrics, test administration and report writing. Students gain practical experience with respect to test administration and scoring of a number of tests (e.g., WISC-IV, WPPSI-III, WAIS-III, WIAT-II, K-TEA, WJ-III, WRAT-3) which are evaluated through the review of completed test protocols and videotaped test administrations. Pre-requisite: This course is limited to students in the School and Clinical Child Psychology program and is a pre-requisite for course APD1216H.

APD1216 H
Psychoeducational Assessment
This course explores theory and practicum in psychological assessment techniques applied in school settings. Areas covered include administration and interpretation of individual intelligence tests, academic tests, tests of special abilities and behaviour rating scales within the context of a practicum assignment in the Counselling and Psychoeducational Clinic. Topics focus on the development of assessment plans, clinical interviewing, test interpretation, report writing, feedback and consultation. Prerequisite: This course is limited to students in the School and Clinical Child Psychology program who have completed course APD1215.

APD1217 H
Foundations of Proactive Behavioural and Cognitive-Behavioural Intervention in Children
This course provides a basic overview of current behavioural and cognitive-behavioural approaches to the management and remediation of maladaptive behaviour such as aggression, disruption, and noncompliance, in clinical, educational and residential settings. A conceptual model of behaviour and cognitive-behaviour therapy and learning principles relevant to this model will be considered. The model focuses on proactive, nonintrusive, and success-based approaches to remediation of problem behaviour. Topics will include assessment of maintaining variables, teaching of adaptive skill clusters, building tolerance to difficult environmental circumstances, moderating severe behaviour to enable skill-teaching and evaluating clinical progress.

APD1218 H
Seminar and Practicum in Assessment (Pass/Fail)
This course supports and monitors the development of the M.A. student's clinical skills (assessment and intervention) in the field placement. Placements are typically in school settings. Seminars are scheduled on alternate weeks for the academic year. They focus on issues related to differential diagnosis and clinical practice. Note: Open to School and Clinical Child Psychology students only and ordinarily taken in the second M.A. year. Students are expected to consult with Dr. Caravias to arrange a practicum placement. Pre-requisite: APD1215, APD1216, APD1219, APD1220 or equivalent; and permission of instructor.

APD1219 H
Ethical Issues in Professional Practice in Psychology
This course is an introduction to ethical issues in the professional practice of psychology. We will cover issues encountered in counselling, assessment and research and will have opportunities to discuss ethical issues in teaching and organizational and community psychology. The goals of the course are: a) to familiarize students with the variety of issues they might encounter in their own work, b) to provide students with the skills and resources for ethical decision-making, c) to familiarize students with the codes, standards and legislation which bear on ethical and legal issues. Open to Counselling Psychology students only.

APD1220 H
Introduction to School and Clinical Child Psychology
This course is intended to provide students in School and Clinical Child Psychology with a grounding in the conceptual foundations of the program. The implications of the scientist practitioner model for practice as a school or clinical child psychologist is the cornerstone of the course. Specific issues to be addressed include developmental and systemic approaches to psychological practice, systems and group behavior within and related to the school organization, multidisciplinary teams, approaches to consultation, principles of prevention and intervention and program evaluation. Students will apply the principles discussed in the course in a practicum placement arranged by the course instructor. Note: Open to School and Clinical Child Psychology students only and ordinarily taken in the first MA year.

APD1228 H
Individual and Group Psychotherapy: Family and Couples Counselling
This course will examine one of several contemporary models of psychotherapy for family and couples counselling.

APD1234 H
Foundations of Cognitive Science
This course examines the psychological and philosophical basis of cognitive science including such topics as the nature of mental representations, functionalist and computational theories of mind, intentionality, subjectivity, consciousness and meta-cognition.

APD1236 H
Developmental Psychopathology
The aim of this course is to provide students with a basic understanding of child and adult psychopathology. We will look at normative patterns in personality, behavior and emotions. We will treat the work in the epidemiology of childhood and adult disorders as central to our understanding of these disorders, and discuss the methodological issues involved in this type of approach that make it so useful to understanding etiology, course, treatment and prognosis. The diversity of functioning in the emotional and behavioral realm will be reviewed in order to understand issues of abnormal or pathological development. The way in which the social and cultural context interacts with genetic and constitutional aspects of the individual will also be considered. This will give us the basis for examining some of the most common disorders and understanding the dynamics of these disorders during childhood and into adulthood. Note: Open to MA and PhD students in SCCP and DPE. Others by permission of the instructor.

APD1237 H
Development and Learning
This course will cover theories and models of development that are relevant to how people learn. Research in cognitive science that has contributed to our understanding of learning will be reviewed and discussed and student projects will help consolidate and extend these ideas. The course also examines motivation to learn, the development of higher order thinking and communities of learning, both in terms of social and cultural contexts.

APD1238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Master's Level
A course designed to permit the study (in a formal class setting) of a specific area of Applied Psychology and Human Development not already covered in the courses listed for the current year. The topics will be announced each spring in the Winter Session and Summer Session timetables.

APD1238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Master's Level: Tables, Charts and Statistical Writing
In this course, we study how to present results and interpretations of quantitative information obtained from surveys, experiments and statistical records. Topics include: design and preparation of tables, analysis and production of graphs and charts and writing about numbers and quantitative findings.

APD1238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Master's Level: Illiteracy and Youth Marginalization: Causes and Solutions
This course will involve an exploration of illiteracy and its role in the marginalization of youth and young adults. The course will consider what is known about youth marginalization, the causes of reading/writing difficulties, the pervasive impact of illiteracy and the evidence concerning effective interventions for breaking the cycle of failure related to illiteracy. A comprehensive examination will be undertaken of the factors that place children and youth at risk for literacy failure, including cognitive/linguistic, social/emotional, and contextual factors (school, home and community).

APD1238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Master's Level: Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Multi-Disciplinary Perspective
This course examines current literature on evidence-based practice in the screening, assessment, diagnosis, treatment and education of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Emphasis is placed on the medical and social model of disability and the impact of autism spectrum disorders on child and adolescent development, family functioning and service delivery in clinical and educational settings.

APD1238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Master's Level: Developing Understandings of Social Justice
This course focuses on central aspects of social cognition in childhood and adolescence as they pertain to understandings of social justice. Topics will include: social cognition (e.g., perspective-taking, sociomoral reasoning); social attitude and belief formation and their behavioural manifestations (e.g., inclusion/exclusion, stereotyping, bullying, civic engagement); awareness of inter-group bias (e.g., racism, sexism, classism); developmental models of discrimination and prejudice; and psychological perspectives on intervention programs designed to promote understandings of social difference in educational contexts (e.g., antiracist and inclusive education, educating for social justice).

APD1238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Master's Level: Introduction to Language and Literacy Development
This course provides an overview of language acquisition from birth to adolescence and an overview of literacy development from preschool/kindergarten years to adolescence. Topics covered include speech perception, phonology, morphology, syntax, vocabulary, aspects of metalinguistic awareness, word reading, and reading comprehension. Issues related to bilingualism and biliteracy are also discussed when relevant.

APD1238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Master's Level: Fostering Excellence Through Education
This course will examine how individuals and institutions define and pursue excellence in both formal and informal educational settings. The course will examine what academic excellence means to students and researchers in education, and how these definitions are reflected in how institutions are organized and how students are taught and assessed. We will look at the issue of academic excellence both historically and in terms of what a utopian educational setting might look like.

APD1238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Master's Level: The Psychology and Education of Inattentive Students
This course focuses on the phenomenon of inattention in the classroom, its detrimental impact on learning and academic outcomes, and on evidence-based intervention to improve students' attention. It will examine the psychological constructs of attention and inattention from both behavioural and cognitive perspectives, the typical and atypical development trajectory of attention skills, and the manifestation of inattention in children with various special needs recognized by the Ontario Ministry of Education. Evidence is presented for the detrimental effects of inattention on the development of numeracy and literacy skillls, as well its associated risk for poor adult outcomes. Students will learn assessment methodologies as well as evidenced-based intervention approaches for individual students, small groups, inclusive classrooms and special education settings.

APD1238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Mental health in the Classroom: How Educators Can Help Our Most Vulnerable Students.
Current research suggests that approximately 15-20% of Canadian children and youth suffer from mental health issues (e.g., anxiety, depression). Mental health problems in students are often related to systemic factors, such as parents' mental health, poverty, minority status and/or geographic factors (e.g., lack of resources in northern isolated regions of Canada). Despite findings that mental health problems in students are common, schools often overlook the impact these issues have on students’ academic success. Educators have an opportunity to play a vital role in the lives of all students. By learning about the signs of mental health problems and by understanding how to refer students suffering from mental health problems to appropriate services, educators can open the door to effective assessment and intervention services. This course explores the prevalence and types of mental health problems in Canadian students. One of the course’s foci will be exploring the impact specific mental health issues (e.g., mood disorders; attachment problems; trauma) have on the academic lives of students. Goals for this course will be to examine the relationship between mental health issues, poverty, minority status and geographic factors; to explore how the education system has addressed mental health issues in students throughout history; to outline how educators can learn to recognize signs of mental health problems in students; and to learn how schools can collaborate effectively with other systems (e.g., CAS; mental health agencies) when referring students for services and when implementing appropriate interventions.

APD1238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Master's Level: Child Language Development in Monolingual, Bilingual, and Clinical Contexts
This is a course in early language acquisition during the preschool years and subsequent development in elementary school. The course will present linguistic, psycholinguistic, cognitive and social interactionist perspectives on the stages and sequences in children’s language growth and will incorporate discussions of bilingual development and atypical development wherever relevant.

APD1238 H
Special Topics in the Department of Applied Psychology and Human Development: Master's Level: Explorations in Creative Learning and Teaching
This course is designed for practicing educators to examine theory, practice and research on the nature and nurture of creativity. It will look at four aspects of creativity: process, product, person and press (environment), with emphasis placed on the study of the socio-cultural and psychological inhibitors and facilitators of creative development. Classroom application of various techniques, strategies, instructional programs and resource materials that foster the development of creative thinking and creative problem solving skills will be explored.

APD1238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Master's Level: Autism: Understanding of Self and Others
This course explores how individuals with autism develop an understanding of themselves and of others across the life span. Topics include the development of emotional understanding, theory of mind, self-concept, autobiographical memory, self-awareness and understanding relationships. The course will also explore theoretical, empirical and auto/biographical accounts of how self-understanding affects life adaptation and life satisfaction. The course will focus on exploring the challenges children with autism face in the classroom. Specific interventions that can be used by educators will be explored.

APD1238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Master's Level: Executive Functions and Education: Research and Practice
The intent of this course is to facilitate students' understanding of executive functions and the relations between executive functions and children's achievement and behaviour. This course also examines interventions designed to address weaknesses in executive processes (e.g., planning, self-monitoring, and goal-setting) in children and youth.

APD1238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Master's Level: Cross-Cultural and Cross-Linguistic Studies of Literacy
This course combines psychological and sociolinguistic approaches to literacy in theory and practice. It takes a cross-cultural and cross-linguistic comparative perspective. Topics include origin and definitions of writing systems, basic processes in learning to read different writing systems, such as English, Chinese, Japanese, etc., literacy as a tool for thinking, literacy as a social practice and literacy practice across culture, gender and ethnicity.

APD1238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Master's Level: Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Children's Problems
The purpose of this course is to examine from a cross-cultural perspective topics such as problems in child development, parenting, beliefs and attributions of physical and mental illness, notions of learning problems, and the function of various helping professions. Through readings and classroom discussion the course is intended to help students become aware of alternative frameworks and the ways in which such differences may affect the interpretation and efficacy associated with typical Western intervention modes.

APD1238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Master's Level: The Discourse and Epistemology of Collaborative Knowledge Construction
An examination of students' classroom discourse with an emphasis on how ideas are jointly constructed and new learning or knowledge established. Epistemological theories and empirical classroom discourse studies are addressed. Major topics include: joint construction of meaning, peer interaction and learning, knowledge as object, creating a collaborative learning community and the development of children's explanatory theories.

APD1238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Master's Level: Language Acquisition and Development
This will be a graduate level seminar that will address fundamental questions regarding language acquisition (with a particular focus on word learning) and communication. We will explore recent theoretical debates and findings in relation to questions such as the following: (1) Is the acquisition of words driven by perceptual versus conceptual processes? (2) What social-cognitive processes underlie word acquisition? (3) How are visual and linguistic information integrated in spoken-language comprehension? (4) When and how do babies appreciate the mental impact of language? (5) How do babies and young children learn to use language for communication? Note: Background knowledge in Developmental psychology or Cognitive development is required for this course.

APD1238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Master's Level: Junior Science Education and Knowledge Building: Theory and Practice
In this course, students will learn how to design and implement a knowledge-building approach to science learning and instruction for junior school students using content from the new Ontario Science and Technology Curriculum and research on how children construct their understanding of big ideas in science. Although this is not a course on technology, students will have an opportunity to construct a class database in Knowledge Forum (TM) where they can contribute ideas, read and build on fellow students' ideas. Additionally students will have access to databases constructed by elementary students and to a database constructed by teachers from around North America. These resources will help students as they design and implement a science lesson. Readings will be drawn from a variety of sources rather than any one book. This course will be highly interactive, reflective and centered on personal knowledge-building of science.

APD1238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Master's Level: Models of Human Development
This course considers how various models address the problem of human development: nativist, maturationist, constructivist, and enculturation accounts. Several themes emerge. The first is the epistemological foundation of developmental theory, that is, how it deals with the problem of knowledge. Second, how do theories address the problematic role of sociality and language in human development? A third theme is the internal coherence of development: is development global or modularized?

APD1238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Master's Level: Psychological Theory and Educational Reform
Proposals for educational reform both ancient and modern are premised on assumptions about society, and about learners. This course will review some of the proposals for reform including the liberalization of the curriculum, the raising of standards, the accommodation to diversity, the drive to accountability and ask 1) why they routinely fail, 2) what they tell us about society, schools and persons, 3) how to make a theory that would be relevant to educational policy decisions.

APD1238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Master's Level: Early Learning in Mathematics
This course will focus on general developmental issues concerning young children and mathematics learning. As part of this course, we will examine international early years mathematics curricula as well as Ontario’s early years focus on inquiry and play-based learning in mathematics. Investigations of mathematics content area include: the development of number sense and early arithmetic, spatial and geometric understandings classification and data management and patterning.

APD1238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Masteer's Level: Cognitive Development in Infancy and Early Childhood
The course is designed to provide students with an in-depth understanding of current developmental research on infants' and children's cognition. We will explore children’s understanding of physical (inanimate) objects, psychological kinds (people), and symbols. You should expect to gain an understanding of some of the main theoretical questions underlying current developmental research and the methods used to address these questions. We will begin with a review of the major theoretical perspectives on cognitive development, spanning from Piaget's theory, to sociocultural theory, to current neuroscience approaches. We will then survey children’s development in several core domains.

APD1238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Master's Level: Telelearning and the Special Needs Student
Computer based 'telelearning' has the potential to be a revolutionary new medium for educating children for the information society of the 21st century. A number of large scale research projects have recently been undertaken in an attempt to keep Canada in the forefront of the development of this technology. These projects are identifying and developing the tools needed to realize the potential of the new information technology in the classroom. This new technology is especially important for teachers who are working with special needs learners either in integrated classroom settings or in a resource capacity. One of the large scale projects - The Special Needs Opportunity Window or 'SNOW' project - is focusing precisely on this area. This course is offered in conjunction with that project. The students will work with classroom teachers and their resource support from collaborating boards to identify, develop and field test appropriate telelearning strategies that meet the needs of students and their teachers in integrated classrooms. The course is open to any OISE/UT students who are interested in applying the new telelearning technology in the classroom. It is anticipated that several of the Board partners of the SNOW project will also participate in the course. Therefore, the students will be able to work with the technology in actual classroom situations. The course will involve both face-to-face interaction as well as electronic interaction using various state-of-the-art telelearning tools. The learning environment will emphasize collaborative knowledge construction.

APD1238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Master's Level: Public Policy for Children
Governments across Canada have recently implemented or are contemplating new polices that will have substantial impacts on the way children grow up. Examples include extended and better compensated maternity leaves, universal childcare, full day junior and senior kindergarten, class sizes limits and new vaccinations. This multidisciplinary course introduces students to some of the research that underlies these initiatives. Each week a faculty member drawn from various disciplines within the social sciences, public health and education at the University will present their current research in this area. In selected weeks guest researchers from other institutions will make presentations. The topics covered will follow the current research of these participants. For students the objective is to gain an appreciation of the connection between research and policy. Most public policies for children draw on a research base. However, research in a given area is sometimes inconclusive and seldom unanimous in recommendation. Furthermore, policies typically integrate any results of research with the claims of various stakeholders in the policy and political processes. A policy maker, therefore, must be able to understand the sometime conflicting claims of researchers and be able to translate them into coherent policy recommendations. A final goal of this course is to provide students with a basis for considering children’s policies from a multidisciplinary perspective.

APD1238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Master's Level: Psychology and Education of Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders
This course examines current literature on evidence-based practice in the screening, assessment, diagnosis, treatment and education of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Emphasis is placed on the medical and social model of disability and the impact of autism spectrum disorders on child and adolescent development, family functioning and service delivery in clinical and educational settings.

APD1238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Master's Level: Adolescent Sexual Offenders - Etiology, Assessment and Treatment
Through discussion of research findings, clinical observations, and case studies, this course will focus on issues such as the 'normal' child and adolescent sexual development, the causes and consequences of adolescent sexual aggression, offender-specific assessment, risk prediction, therapist self-care and legal/ethical issues and dilemmas. We will also examine current practices and outcome research regarding the treatment of adolescent and adult sexual offenders with a focus on cognitive-behavioural and multi-systemic treatment interventions.

APD1238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Master's Level: Self Direction in Educational Contexts
In this course, students will examine the nature and development of verbal self direction and expertise, conditions fostering and inhibiting this development and features of educational programs which create these conditions. Students will participate in the assessment of self-directive processes and expertise and the design of educational programs which foster self-directive development.

APD1238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Master's Level: Causal Inference Theories and Methods
This course introduces Rubin’s Causal Model that provides a fundamental framework for conceptualizing causal problems. In addition to studying a variety of experimental, quasi-experimental and non-experimental designs in social scientific and educational research, students will be introduced to cutting-edge techniques of causal inference. These include propensity score matching and stratification, inverse-probability-of-treatment weighting, selection models and the instrumental variable method. Emphasis will be placed on comparing alternative research designs and on clarifying assumptions for each design in the contexts of various application examples. The course is aimed at equipping students with preliminary knowledge and skills necessary for appraising and conducting empirical research about causality. Students can either take it as a stand-alone course or as a prerequisite for a Structural Equation Modeling course (soon to be developed). Prerequisite: APD1288 (Intermediate Statistics) or equivalent.

APD1238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Master's Level: Teaching Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Inclusive Settings
This course aims to bridge the gap between current neuroscientific understanding of ADHD and classroom practice. A critical review of the neuroscience of ADHD will focus on cognitive characteristics and the implications for learning and functioning in the classroom. Based on models of the Reflective Practitioner, Inclusive Education, Universal Design for Learning and Differentiated Instruction, students will be introduced to and guided in using a framework for selecting and adapting instructional practices to address the learning needs of students manifesting the classic characteristics of ADHD and related problems. Prerequisites: APD2280 and APD1285.

APD1238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Master's Level: The Development of Algebraic Reasoning in Young Children
In recent years there has been a new focus on algebra in elementary school. Rather than delay the teaching of algebra until high school, school boards across Canada are including activities that promote algebraic reasoning in their mathematics curricula starting in Kindergarten. This course is designed to acquaint students with current theories and research on the development and learning of algebraic reasoning in elementary school. Algebraic reasoning goes beyond what is typically thought of as 'algebra'. Kieran (1996) defines algebraic reasoning as 'the use of any of a variety of representations that handle quantitative situations in a relational way'. Driscoll (1999) says that algebraic thinking can be considered to be the 'capacity to represent quantitative situations so that relations among variables become apparent'. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics considers early algebra to comprise four separate strands: 1) the representation and analysis of mathematical situations using algebraic symbols; 2) modeling of mathematics; 3) analyses of change and 4) patterns, relations and functions. In this course we will look closely at these strands and conduct brief research projects on the development and learning trajectories of one of these strands.

APD1238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Master's Level: Advanced Topics in Special Education and Adaptive Instruction: A Proactive Model of Classroom Management for Severe Problem Behaviour in Special Education and Inclusive Settings
This course is designed to instruct students in an empirically supported and success-focused model for proactive classroom management in either special education or inclusive settings. Students will learn the skills necessary to proactively prevent problem behaviour in the classroom that can impede classroom objectives. Students will be taught to conduct informal assessments of serious conduct problems in the classroom to determine the contextual factors that are maintaining problem responses. They will also learn strategies for intervening with students with success-focused strategies that greatly reduce problem responses without punishment or intrusion on the child. The course is ideal for teachers in specialized settings in which problem behaviour is common or for those responsible for providing training or supports to teachers of children with challenging behaviour.

APD1238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Master's Level: Narrative, Development, and Identity
Narrative has become an extensively discussed subject in a number of psychological research fields ranging from consciousness, cognition and emotion to applied areas such as clinical, educational and cross-cultural psychology. This course will examine the importance of narrative for a dimension that affects most of these areas: human development and identity. The purpose of the course is to make participants familiar with theoretical, empirical and methodological concepts and models that aim to understand the nature of narrative in processes of (linguistic, cognitive, social, and moral) development, using the development of self and identity as an integrative focus.

APD1238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Master's Level: Early Development: The Roots of Literacy
This course will introduce students to young children's epistemological understandings of the written language, prior to schooling. Children's early experiences in reading and writing will be explored in relation to developmental, social and cultural factors. Associations among literacy, language development and cognition will be explored. Students will have the opportunity to conduct small empirical investigations in an area of early literacy development.

APD1238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Master's Level: Symbolic Development and Learning from Media
This will be a graduate level seminar that will address fundamental questions regarding symbolic development and media-based learning in young children. We will explore recent findings in relation to questions such as the following: (1) What does symbolic understanding entail? (2) What is the developmental trajectory with respect to symbolic understanding? (3) What social-cognitive processes underlie symbolic development? (4) What can young children learn from media? (5) How well can young children learn from media? (6) What features of the media affect learning? (7) How can we facilitate children’s symbolic learning? We will explore these questions by examining children’s learning from a variety of symbolic media: pictures, scale-models, maps, TV and electronic games.

APD1238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Master's Level: Neuroscience and Education: Bridging the Gap
This course will bridge the gap between neuroscience, genetics, cognitive psychology and education. Students will become familiar with new research in these diverse areas and discuss how this research will impact educational instruction and policy.

APD1238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Master's Level: Reading, Reading Disabilities, and Reading Interventions
This course focuses on reading disabilities and evidence-based approaches to assessment, intervention and educational accommodations. The first half of the course focuses on the core concepts of reading and reading disabilities, including definitions, typical acquisition and development of reading and reading-related skills, genetic and environmental factors influencing reading acquisition and reading disabilities, as well as the definition, prevalence, types and developmental course of reading disabilities. Also, cognitive models of reading and reading disabilities are highlighted, especially phonological theory and models of reading comprehension. The second half of the course aims to bridge theory and practice. Accordingly, it will review evidence-based reading interventions for students in the early grades which focus primarily on word-level reading, as well as interventions for older students which focus on fluency and comprehension. The course will conclude with discussion on the critical role of accommodations and the supporting evidence to justify the need for accommodations for students throughout their elementary, high-school, and college education.

APD1238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Master's Level: Mathematics Difficulties and Disabilities: Theory, Research and Practice
An examination of current discussions of mathematics difficulties and disabilities. Topics will include: (1) identification, screening, diagnosis, and common characteristics of mathematics difficulties and disabilities; (2) the relationship between mathematics disabilities and reading disabilities; (3) evidence based instruction for mathematics disabilities and difficulties. Pre-requisite: APD2292 and/or APD1285.

APD1238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Master's Level: Manuscript Preparation Focussed on Research and Issues in Math Education.
In this course students will explore basic requirements and issues related to preparing and writing articles for publication in education journals. The course includes reading a number of articles in the field and discussing such matters as content, structure and argument, and theoretical and practical research issues. Each student will produce on their own a paper which will be reviewed and discussed by the group as a whole. The overall goal is to provide each student with the opportunity to develop an article suitable for publication.

APD1238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Master's Level: Traumatized Children: Diagnosis and Treatment
The course will focus on the assessment and intervention of children who have experienced severe abuse and neglect. Short and long term effects including physiological, physical and psychological as well as various intervention modalities will be discussed.

APD1238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Recent Advances in Child Development

APD1238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Master's Level: Technology, Psychology and Play
This course examines psychological theories of play (e.g. Vygotsky, Parten, Huiainga, Brown) and the role of technology in play (e.g. Resnick, Gee, Squires) from both human development and educational perspectives. Topics addressing play include: neurological development, healthy mental development, trust, collaboration and passion to learn. In addition, we will address the growing role of technology in 'eduplay' and emerging social implications within special education and early learning (e.g. concerns of addiction to gaming, social media, and networked connectedness). 1. What is flex-mode? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5tVBn4vGkSI 2. The discourse environment http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ys2Hm0F7xHE (10 minutes) 3. The Webinar Explained http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tsDaPyGQNW4 (4 minutes)

APD1238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Master's Level: Analyzing, Understanding, Evaluating, interpreting, and Using Ontario Large-scale Educational Assessment Results
This course will examine the principles of measurement and achievement such as: validity (are we really testing the right content?), reliability (how accurate are those results?), comparability (can the results be compared, especially across time?), and fairness (is the test or the testing method biased against certain students or groups?). Consideration of the purposes, advantages, limitations and dangers of standardized student testing. Examination of the recent history of provincial testing policies and implementations. Review of the methodologies of test preparation, vakidation, administration, scoring, analysis, and reporting. Survey of the interpretation and use of assessment results by students, teachers, educational administrators and the public. Study of the consequences of the interpretation and use of test scores. The course will focus on the provincial testing programs of the Educational Quality and Accountability Office of Ontario, EQAO, with some extension to local testing and to national and international projects. The goal is to build knowledge and expertise so that educators, including front-line teachers and administrators, can be judicious consumers of provincial assessment results and leaders in affecting assessment policies and practices.

APD1238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Master's Level: Topics in Cognitive Science
This course will cover growing points in cognitive science, including perception of objects, planning and intention, problem solving and creativity, distributed cognition, emotions and cognitive poetics.

APD1238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Master's Level: Society and Early Child Development
An exploration of contemporary scientific evidence, social policy, and educational/clinical practice pertaining to early child development. This course will incorporate the Millennium Dialogue on Early Child Development, a forum for international experts participating in a webcast dialogue that aims to have global influence. For more details, visit www.webforum2001.net (Participating scientists include Ron Barr, Tom Boyce, Megan Gunnar, Dan Keating, Alicia Lieberman, Charles Nelson, Michael Rutter, and Richard Tremblay.) Topics include brain development, emotional development, family and community impacts on children, competence and coping, and societal and cultural issues. Participants in this course will consider how contemporary developmental research findings can inform and promote optimal child development, and will participate in the dialogue itself by generating critiques and topics for discussion by participating scientists.

APD1238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Master's Level: Social Understanding and Personal Identity in the First Five Years
How does a newborn baby that is almost entirely focussed on basic bodily functions such as sleeping and feeding become transformed in the space of a few years into the sophisticated social consumer of information that is ready for school? This course will follow the milestones of early social and cognitive development. The overarching goal is an understanding of how cognition, language and social behaviour are intertwined in the developmental process. Key topics will include: adaptations for social life; social engagement in the first year; joint attention and learning through others; the nature of mental representation; varieties of self knowledge and reasoning about the future.

APD1238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Master's Level: Critical Issues in Literacy Development of the At-Risk Learner
This course uses different theoretical perspectives to examine the literacy development of urban students who are at risk of dropping out psychologically or physically from the school context. Attention is given to institutional, community, family and individual challenges that may influence access to literacy development and may prevent learning from texts in schools. The course considers programs and instruction that respond to these different perspectives and that foster reading and writing development across the grades.

APD1238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Master's Level: Language, Literacy and Culture
This course is intended to present and discuss new theoretical, empirical, and methodological approaches to the psychology of language, literacy and culture. Various explanations of the cognitive, social, and cultural consequences of spoken and written language will be outlined and confronted. A second focus will be the relationships between diverse forms and modes of language (such as oral, written, signed, electronically mediated) and their cognitive and cultural implications.

APD1245 H
Brief Counselling Strategies
This course is intended to introduce students to basics of theory and practice of three brief counselling models: Cognitive Therapy, Behaviour Therapy, and Solution Focused Brief Therapy via discussions on the required readings, instructor demonstration of specific techniques, class role plays, regular practice of techniques with classmates, and analysis and critique of DVDs of expert clinicians. Students will learn how to do a suicide risk assessment and will develop a solid understanding of the principles of crisis intervention. Related ethical and professional practice issues will be addressed. Students will learn to compare and contrast these three brief counselling models and how and when to integrate crisis intervention in their work.

APD1247 H
Practicum in Adult Counselling (Pass/Fail)
This course must be taken in conjunction with 1203Y Practicum in Counselling. The two courses may only be taken by students enrolled in Counselling programs. All students must arrange their practica in consultation with the department's Coordinator of Internship and Counselling Services.

APD1249 H
Social-Emotional Development and Applications
This course will review theories of social and emotional development, and then follow the child's social- emotional growth from birth through adolescence. Within the context of children's family and peer relationships we will consider the ways in which emotional and social experience becomes patterned, organized, and represented by the child and by others. We will examine the implications of these issues for problematic outcomes in families, daycares, schools and for prevention and intervention practices.

APD1252 H
Individual Reading and Research in Counselling Psychology: Master's Level
Specialized study, under the direction of a faculty member, focusing upon topics that are of particular interest to the student but are not included in available courses. While credit is not given for a thesis investigation proper, the study may be closely related to such a topic.

APD1253 H
Feminist Issues in Counselling Psychology and Psychotherapy
This course examines the principles and practices of feminist therapy, theories of female development and the psychology of women. Special emphasis is placed on relational theories. Specialized techniques and their application to specific and diverse groups of women will be reviewed.

APD1256 H
Child Abuse: Intervention and Prevention
An examination of the nature and consequences of child maltreatment. Theory and research in physical, sexual, and emotional abuse will be reviewed. Coverage includes recent therapeutic interventions and promising prevention initiatives. The objective of this course is to provide a knowledge base for more effective practice and inquiry.

APD1259 H
Child and Family Relationships - Implications for Education
This course examines the connections between family systems and the educational system. Family-service connections with childcare and other services are also considered, with emphasis on early childhood. Particular attention is paid to the literature on parent-community involvement in education and related program and policy matters.

APD1261 H
Group Work in Counselling
Presentation of models of group work processes, as well as of current theory applicable to group work in counselling. Students will be expected to develop a catalogue of skills and ideas useful in the school setting, and to develop communication skills essential to group work. For students enrolled in Counselling programs only.

APD1262 H
Educational and Psychological Testing for Counselling
A survey of standardized tests typically used by counsellors in schools, community colleges, and other settings. Topics included are: a review of the basic concepts in tests and measurement; criteria for evaluating educational and psychological tests; rationale underlying the development of various tests; and practice in administration of tests and interpretation of test results. Individual intelligence scales and projective techniques are beyond the scope of this course.

APD1263 H
Seminar in Research Methods for M.A. students [RM]
Quantitative and qualitative alternatives in the design and conduct of counselling research will be examined. Limitations on research from practical and ethical considerations will be addressed. Students will be introduced to library, computer, and consulting resources within OISE/UT. (Limited to Counselling Psychology for Psychology Specialists students.)

APD1265 H
Social and Personality Development
This course deals with current issues and research in particular areas of social and personality development. The focus of the course will vary from year to year and will include identity and personality formation, emotional influences on development and moral development. As well as examining current research, we will consider the implications of this research for the contexts in which children are socialized and the developmental outcomes that result from different kinds of experience.

APD1266 H
Career Counselling and Development: Transition from School to Work
This course aims at preparing the counsellor for an expanded role in career guidance. It deals with all major aspects of career development. The topics covered are: social and economic context, theories of career development, the role of information, assessment of career development, career guidance programs, and recurring issues in career guidance. This course is limited to students in a U of T graduate degree program. Others by permission of instructor.

APD1268 H
Career Counselling and Development: Transitions in Adulthood
This course will focus on the theories of career development and counselling techniques to deal with major career transitions. Topics will include mid-life career changes, career psychology of women, career planning and development in the workplace, relocation counselling, and retirement and leisure counselling. This course is limited to students in a U of T graduate degree program. Others by permission of instructor.

APD1269 H
Use of Guided Imagery in Counselling and Psychotherapy
This course has both an assessment and intervention focus. Students will learn how to complement their existing assessment skills by accessing clients' images. Students will also learn how to work with images as they spontaneously occur in therapy. In addition specific interventions that are based on imagery will be examined. These include various forms of relaxation, desensitization, stress innoculation and imaginal exposure. The class is a combination of didactic material, role plays and experiential exercises. The application to different client groups will be discussed.

APD1272 H
Play and Education
A series of seminars dealing with the definition of the term 'play' and its relation to both psychological and educational processes in the young child. The history of play will be examined in relationship to various theories that have been advanced concerning the need children have to play, the functions of play, and their relationship to psychological, social, cognitive, emotional and physical development. Note: This course is intended primarily for Child Study and Education students and M.Ed. students with an interest in adaptive instruction and special education. Others must seek the permission of the instructor to register.

APD1275 H
Special Topics in Counselling Psychology: Career Counselling Strategies   
This course will take the treatment perspective to vocational development:  that is, how strategies and/or interventions may be applied to overcome discontinuities or delays in vocational development.  The topics to be considered include the nature of work in society, vocational development theory, the career counselling process, and strategies to remediate career development/decision problems. As a result of this course students will be able to:  1. understand and implement different career counselling models  2. understand and implement different strategies to remediate problems in vocational development and/or career decision-making  3. develop their assessment, goal setting and intervention planning skills.

APD1275 H
Special Topics in Counselling Psychology: Working with Conduct Disordered Children and Their Families: Evidence Based Approaches to Assessment, Referral and Gender Specific Interventions
Conduct disorder (CD) involves the persistent patterns of antisocial behaviours displayed over time during childhood and adolescence. Research has shown that CD is the most common referral reason to a children’s mental health centre in North America and that these children consume the most resources and are the most expensive to serve. The issue of antisocial and violent young children has become a pressing issue facing society today. Elementary school aged children are increasingly being identified by police, schools, fire service, child welfare and children’s mental health as angry and aggressive. This interactive course will focus on the issue of CD in boys and girls highlighting gender differences (e.g., pathways and risk factors) and introduce students to three key areas: (1) gender-sensitive risk assessment tools, (2) gender specific clinical risk management strategies; and (3) community mobilization activities. During the course, students will be introduced to Logic Models, risk assessment tools used to increase clinicians’ and researchers’ general understanding of early childhood risk factors, have an opportunity to construct risk summaries and assist in the creation of effective clinical risk management plans for high-risk children and their families utilizing case examples. In addition, students will be introduced to a Canadian evidence-based cognitive-behavioural strategy called SNAP™ - this self-control and problem-solving strategy is being used across North America and Europe. Actual live observations of SNAP™ Groups (parent and child) will be made available to students interested in learning more about this program. This course will be of interest to students seeking to broaden their understanding, knowledge and skills in working with conduct disordered children and their families.

APD1275 H
Special Topics in Counselling Psychology: Neuropsychology for the Practicing Clinician
This course will examine the usefulness of Neuropsychology and Neuropsychological evaluation, in the context of Psychological practice and application. The course offers a window into the history of this branch of Psychology, the assessment of possible Neurological deficit and disorder following different Neurological traumas such as TBI, MVA and CVA as well as a result of chronic and acute illness. Some discussion would take place regarding Neuropsychology and the developing brain and a brief examination of assessment for learning difficulties and disordered attention.

APD1275 H
Special Topics in Counselling Psychology: Performance Psychology: Consulting for Peak Performance
This emerging area of psychological practice focuses on the application of psychological theories, principles and techniques to enhance optimal performance among athletes, performing artists, business people and those in high risk occupations. Performance issues include psychological skills training in the performance domain, the quality of the performance experience and performer's personal growth. Necessary elements to optimal consulting include: knowledge of counselling skills, knowledge of consultation skills, understanding of systems issues, knowledge of psychological skills techniques such as those used in sport psychology and domain-specific knowledge.

APD1275 H
Special Topics in Counselling Psychology: Issues and Interventions In Adolescent and Youth Development
This course examines the strengths and vulnerabilities of adolescents and youth and how they may facilitate or impede interventions. Focus will be on identity function, risktaking, family relations and friendships. Problem areas covered include substance abuse, violence, gangs and eating disorders.

APD1275 H
Special Topics in Counselling Psychology: Personality Theory and Assessment
This course will examine different personality theories (i.e. psychodynamic theories of Freud and Jung, the personality structure theories of Murray and Cattell, the perceived reality perspective of Kelly and Rogers, and the learning-based theories of Skinner, Dollar, Miller, Eysenck and Bandura, among others). Personality theories will be discussed and explored in the context of their usefulness to psychological assessment in general and personality assessment in particular, and for the understanding of other aspects of functioning such as intellectual ability and deficits. Personality tests and measurements will be introduced and their value and benefit studied. Examination of projective measures, such as the Rorschach Ink Blot Test, Thematic Apperception Test as well as Objective tools such as MMPI-2, MCI and others will be offered as part of this course.

APD1275 H
Special Topics in Counselling Psychology: School Violence, the Child, and the Adolescent: Strategies for the Counselling and Behaviour Management of at Risk Youth in Schools
This course will examine school violence and behavioural maladjustment in children and youth as they relate to the provision of counselling services or behaviour management initiatives in school settings. Emphasis will be placed on identifying counselling and behavioural management strategies that can be used with disruptive and/or misguided youth. Topics will include aggression, school violence, the effects of mental health in the classroom, and an examination of the personal, social and environmental factors that often impact on the effectiveness of intervention strategies. Targeted school violence and bullying are intended to serve as general models of violence to inform class discussion. To serve in the synthesis of various course topics, a variety of subject related contemporary feature films will be viewed and discussed in class.

APD1275 H
Special Topics in Counselling Psychology: Psychology of Spiritual Growth
This course is designed to introduce students to the study of spirituality, focussing on individual's spiritual growth in relationship to psychology. Psychological effects gained through the practice of meditation and yoga that lead to self-healing or spiritual healing, as well as guided imagery will be examined. Topics covered include fusing Western and Eastern thought as a way of achieving inner wholeness.

APD1275 H
Special Topics in Counselling Psychology: 'Race', Ethnicity and Research in Counselling and Psychotherapy
This course will familiarize students with current issues and debates concerning the theory and practice of counselling and psychotherapy in a multicultural society. Particular emphasis will be given to understanding the relationship between the historical, socio-cultural and political contexts of the production of qualitative and quantitative research in this field. The course is appropriate for students considering a dissertation proposal in multicultural counselling and psychotherapy. A weekly seminar will focus on research methods and methodologies, the design and structure of the research, sampling procedures, ethical issues, empirical constraints and production of new knowledge(s). Students will review, analyze and redesign representative studies in the multicultural literature which will eventually lead to the development of a thesis proposal. 

APD1275 H
Special Topics in Counselling Psychology: Interpersonal Psychotherapy
This course will focus on understanding the treatment of individuals with IPT, a brief psychotherapy initially developed to treat depression - Interpersonal Therapy (IPT). More recently, it has been used to treat individuals with a broad range of diagnoses including depression in the medically ill, Borderline Personality Disorder, and adolescents. IPT is a well researched psychotherapy with proven effectiveness in a variety of depressive spectrum disorders. Their Interpersonal Therapy Clinic at the Clarke is the only clinic in Canada dedicated to providing treatment and training in the Interpersonal Therapy model. Participants will become familiar with the history and development of IPT (including the NIMH Collaborative Trial on Depression) as well as the treatment parameters of IPT. Participants will learn how to identify suitable clients for IPT and how to complete an interpersonal inventory. Participants will view video tapes, participate in small and large group discussions and present a case vignette tied to course material. Feedback on knowledge skills will be given throughout the course.

APD1275 H
Special Topics in Counselling Psychology: Grief Counselling Through Transition and Loss
Since loss is a universal experience, counsellors need an understanding of the grieving processes associated with change across the lifespan. This course explores the many faces of grief as experienced by individuals, families and communities. It identifies signs of blocked grief as well as cultural and gender expressions. It offers helpful counselling skills and interventions to assist individuals and groups through transitions, bereavement and grief.

APD1275 H
Special Topics in Counselling Psychology: Stress and the Workplace
This course will explore issues related to workplace stress. Basic concepts of occupational stress, it's relationship to performance and health will be covered, however the focus will be on methods of assessing and managing specific stress and stressors. A wide scope of stressors will be explored from environmental and ergonomic, to interpersonal conflict and family vs. work demands. The course will examine stress related issues such as alcoholism and depression in the workplace, mass psychogenic illness, violence and other stressors specific to occupations such as educational workers, paramedics and occupations of interest to students.

APD1275 H
Special Topics in Counselling Psychology: The Future of Work and Education - Implications for Careers, Quality of Life, Counselling, Teaching and Curriculum Design
This course examines the many factors likely to change both the world of work and the delivery of education for everyone over the next five to ten years. Although different possible scenarios and change factors will be discussed, the primary emphasis will be on the increasing influence of digitization, deregulation, and globalization. The main objective of the course will be to explore the various adaptive and creative educational, workplace and life challenges implied by these potential changes.

APD1275 H
Special Topics in Counselling Psychology: Principles of Clinical Neuropsychology
From the brain to behaviour to bedside rehabilitation, this course will focus on the assessment and treatment of brain-related diseases. A strong emphasis will be placed on understanding biological bases of behaviour and cognitive processes as they related to conditions such as schizophrenia, traumatic brain injury and acquired brain injury.

APD1275 H
Special Topics in Counselling Psychology: Mindfulness and Psychotherapy: Theoretical Perspectives and Clinical Applications
This course will provide students with a thorough overview of the field of Mindfulness and Psychotherapy from theoretical, clinical and research perspectives. At the end of the course, students would be able to apply mindfulness tools in their personal and clinical practice. They will also have an understanding of the major theoretical, clinical and research trends in the field.

APD1275 H
Special Topics in Counselling Psychology: Gestalt Counselling and Psychotherapy
The course will introduce students to the philosophy and approach of Gestalt therapy and counselling. Topics covered will include: the history and background of Gestalt, the importance of awareness (living in the Here and Now), finishing unfinshed business (closure and completion), responsibility, choice and freedom, contact and relating (I and Thou), and the need for clear boundaries in our relationships.

APD1275 H
Special Topics in Counselling Psychology: Psychotherapy in Africa
In contrast to the nature of life in traditional African societies, the modern African environment is characterized by the presence of an unpredictable world where people grow up with few definite guidelines on how to confront the problems of living. Increasingly bereft of the usual social support of the extended family system and the typical cultural patterns of interventions in emergencies, people are constantly faced with enormous psychological brokenness and identity fragmentation arising from the complicated nature of the new cultural environment under which we live and work. This course is intended to give an overview of the efforts that trained psychotherapists in Africa are making to blend what is good in the healing systems of indigenous Africa and the West, to fashion an appropriate response to the psychological needs and problems of the contemporary African clients. The course will be relevant for people who intend to practice counseling and psychotherapy with clients from non-Western cultures. It is also expected that counselors in Western settings might be able to draw some insights from the course to improve their practice.

APD1275 H
Special Topics in Counselling Psychology: Youth at Risk: Special Challenges for Counsellors and Educators
This introductory course will examine contemporary youth issues which make exceptional demands on the personal and professional resources of teachers, counsellors and on the school system. Topics to be presented will include street youth, teen gangs, and youth and violence. Course material will cover issues of etiology, strategies for counselling and intervention, and implications for schools and educators.

APD1275 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Emotion-focused Therapy
The theoretical background and training involved in this course is an essential component of overall training in counselling psychology interventions. This course is an integral part of current training in counselling and clinical psychology interventions. The topic of this course is highly in demand by counselling and clinical psychology students. While we have an advanced doctoral course on a similar topic, no course is available currently for Master's level students.

APD1275 H
Special Topics in Counselling Psychology: Pharmacological and Behavioural Approaches in the Treatment of Mental Disorders
Drugs that affect cognition, feeling and behaviour are pervasive in our society. We use them legally and illegally, for recreation, self-medication, and the treatment of illness. We will review the development and use of therapeutic agents in the treatment of mental disorders (including substance abuse itself). We will look at the use and misuse of the most common therapeutic agents in health care settings. A special emphasis will be on the trend toward comparing, contrasting and combining behavioural with pharmacological intervention in the treatment of mental disorders.

APD1275 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Mindfulness Interventions in Counselling and Education
This course examines an area of high relevance to both psychology and education. Mindfulness-based practices are currently in great demand and training resources are few. We support the availability of these resources at the graduate level along with our intervention-based courses. This will complement our course offerings and is entirely consistent with our emphasis on applicability to both counselling and education.

APD1275 H
Special Topics in Counselling Psychology: Counselling Theories and Techniques
This course introduces students to the theory and practice of counselling psychology from various theoretical perspectives. For each theoretical orientation studied, we will address key concepts (view of human nature, assumptions, and principles of the theory), therapeutic process (therapist goals and functions, client’s experience in therapy, therapist/client relationship), therapeutic techniques and multicultural issues as they relate to this theory (e.g., strengths and weaknesses with regard to particular client populations).

APD1275 H
Special Topics in Counselling Psychology: Counselling as Renewal
Open to Counselling students at all levels. We will consider the implications of the principles in the Spirit of Renewal for counselling. Course participants will engage in exercises from 'Connecting With Your Inner Life' to consider the relevance of these exercises for their clients. Exercises include such topics as 'Connecting with your inner wisdom', 'Disconnecting from your Inner Critic', and 'Connecting with your capacity for inner movement'.

APD1278 H
Cognitive Therapy
This course covers current theory and principles of cognitive therapy in the treatment of anxiety and depression. Special applications such as grief counselling, bereavement and post-traumatic stress disorders will be examined.

APD1279 H
Preventative Interventions for Children at Risk
This course examines evidenced based efforts to prevent problems that place children and youth at risk. Focus will be on ways of reducing risk and increasing protective factors. Coverage includes interventions that effectively deal with health, socialm and educational issues impacting well being and life chances. Poverty, chronic illness and intentional and unintentional injury are some of the areas surveyed.

APD1284 H
Psychology and Education of Children and Adolescents with Behaviour Disorders
Psychological and educational characteristics of children and adolescents with behaviour disorders with an emphasis on the interplay between constitutional and environmental factors that contribute to these disorders. Research on current assessment and intervention procedures will be analysed. NOTE: This course is intended primarily for Child Study and Education students and M.Ed. students with an interest in adaptive instruction and special education. Others must seek the permission of the instructor to register.

APD1285 H
Psychology and Education of Children and Adolescents with Learning Disabilities
Psychological and educational characteristics of children and adolescents with learning disabilities and ADHD with an emphasis on the constitutional and environmental factors that contribute to these disabilities and enable optimal functioning, will be examined in this course. Emphasis is placed on the concept of learning disability and on the educational implications of the research literature in the field. NOTE: This course is intended primarily for Child Study and Education students, School and Clinical Child Psychology students and M.Ed. students with an interest in adaptive instruction and special education.

APD1287 H
Introduction to Applied Statistics [RM]
This course provides an introduction to quantitative methods of inquiry and a foundation for more advanced courses in applied statistics for students in education and social sciences. The course covers univariate and bivariate descriptive statistics; an introduction to sampling, experimental design and statistical inference; contingency tables and Chi-square; t-test, analysis of variance, and regression. Students will learn to use SPSS software. At the end of the course, students should be able to define and use the descriptive and inferential statistics taught in this course to analyze real data and to interpret the analytical results. Note: Students who have previously taken CTL2004 are prohibited from taking this course.

APD1288 H
Intermediate Statistics and Research Design [RM]
Survey sampling, experimental design, and power analysis; analysis of variance for one-way and multi-way data with fixed, mixed and random effects models; linear and multiple regression; multiple correlation; analysis of covariance. Note: This course is intended primarily for OISE students. Others must seek the permission of the instructor to register. Students who have previously taken CTL2808 are prohibited from taking this course. Prerequisite: APD1287 or equivalent.

APD1290 H
Indigenous Healing in Counselling & Psychoeducation
This course seeks to define, redefine and locate Indigenous and traditional healing in the context of Euro-North American counselling and psychotherapy. In particular, the course will examine cultural and traditional healing within the broader economic, social and political practices of mental health care and in Canada. While the focus is in counselling psychology and psychoeducation (pedagogy), it also provides a critical site to highlight challenges and transformations within health care, thus the course will draw attention to the use of traditional healing in mental health care and counselor education. Explorations of the currents issues and debates concerned with the contemporary practices of Indigenous healing will be a key features of the course. For example, cultural respect and appropriation, ethics and confidentiality, competence of Indigenous healers and their qualifications and training. Through an in-depth analysis of international Indigenous helping and healing practices, with particular focus on Canadian Indigenous perspectives, the course will undertake to raise questions regarding the theory, practice, and research of Indigenous mental health and healing in psychology and education. As part of the exploration of Indigenous healers and healing, the course will also focus on how peoples from non-dominant cultures construct illness perceptions and the kinds of treatments they expect to use to solve mental health problems through individual and community psychology interventions. In this respect the course is also intended to contribute to community development and community health promotion.

APD1291 H
Addictive Behaviors: Approaches to Assessment and Intervention
This course will explore the role of the counsellor/counselling psychologist in the field of addictive behaviours. Through lectures, interactive discussions, video demonstrations, group presentations and experiential exercises, students will become familiar with various theoretical models of addiction, approaches to assessment and common intervention methods and techniques. Several intervention approaches will be examined, including behavioural, cognitive-behavioural and motivational interventions, relapse prevention, and self-help approaches. Although the primary emphasis will be on substance use issues, other addictive behaviours will be covered (e.g., gambling).

APD1292 H
Instrument Design and Analysis [RM]
Introduction to the theory and practice of educational and psychological measurement. Topics include test development, classical test theory and item response theory, with applications to norm-referenced and criterion-referenced standardized achievement tests, group intelligence and aptitude tests, attitude and self-report scales, personality tests, performance assessments, questionnaires, and interview protocols. Note: Student who have previously taken CTL2801 or APD1292 are prohibited from taking this course. Prerequisite: APD1287 or equivalent. 

APD1293 H
Applied Research Design and Data Analysis [RM]
This seminar is intended primarily for doctoral students. There are two main activities. One is the cooperative critiquing and development of research designs and data analysis plans based on ongoing work of the students in the course. The second is discussion of selected topics in research design and data analysis, e.g. balanced incomplete block experimental designs, replicated survey designs, exploratory analysis, general linear models, optimal and multidimensional scaling, data visualization, and computerized research design, data analysis, and graphical methods and tools. Note: Students who have previously taken CTL2807 are prohibited from taking this course. Prerequisite: APD1288 or permission of instructor.  

APD2200 Y
Child Study: Observation, Evaluation, Reporting and Research
A course designed to develop the skills and knowledge fundamental to a developmentally oriented, systematic study of children through observing, recording, interpreting and reporting in a professional manner the behaviour and development of children in diverse practice and research settings. A range of methods from direct observation to standardized testing will be surveyed. The role of the teacher-researcher and issues in connecting research and practice will be emphasized. Note: This course is normally open to students in the M.A. in Child Study and Education program only.

APD2201 H
Childhood Education Seminar
A seminar examining the teaching-learning interaction between adults and children in preschool, primary and junior educational settings. Emphasis is on the integration of teaching practice with principles of child development and learning theory. This seminar draws on the students' experiences from practicum placements. Students are placed in classrooms in the Institute's Laboratory School, in public and separate schools, and in other settings. Students are under the joint supervision of an associate teacher on site and an acdemic staff member at the Institute of Child Study. There are four practicum sessions, each providing 72 hours of practicum experience in 4, six-week, half-day blocks. Note: This course is normally open to students in the M.A. in Child Study and Education program only.

APD2202 H
Childhood Education Seminar II: Advanced Teaching
This seminar will provide for discussion of topics and issues that emerge during the students' internship (APD2221 Advanced Teaching Practicum) and that relate to employment preparation. Note: This course is normally open to students in the M.A. in Child Study and Education program only.

APD2210 Y
Introduction to Curriculum 1: Core Areas
A study of education techniques and the role of the teacher in designing, implementing and evaluating curricula for children aged three to twelve. Basic areas of the elementary curriculum are introduced, including designing educational programs, early childhood, language and literacy, mathematics and science. Note: This course is normally open to students in the M.A. in Child Study and Education program only.

APD2211 H
Theory and Curriculum I: Language and Literacy
This course provides a foundation of understanding for language and literacy instruction, translating current theory and research into evidence-based practice. The course considers reading and writing acquisition in terms of the component processes involved at various stages of literacy development. The goal of the course is to engender thoughtful, critical, informed decisions about the teaching of language and literacy in schools. Teachers successfully completing the course will be prepared to develop and implement theoretically-sound, practical and motivating classroom literacy programs for the primary and junior grades. Note: This course is normally open to students in the M.A. in Child Study and Education program only.

APD2212 H
Theory and Curriculum II: Mathematics
A detailed study of the design, implementation and evaluation of the elementary curriculum in the area of mathematics. The practical issues are informed by theoretical considerations of children's cognitive development from infancy onwards, particularly the ways in which implicit knowledge becomes explicit, and naive theories become formalized. Note: This course is normally open to students in the M.A. in Child Study and Education program only.

APD2214 H
Introduction to Curriculum 11: Special Areas
This course will provide students with an introduction to a broad range of curriculum areas important to elementary education. These areas include health education, social studies, environmental education, the arts (music, drama, art) and physical education. Students will also have the opportunity to examine issues related to diversity and equity, school law and the application of technology across the curriculum. This course will also enhance students' understanding of curriculum integration. The course will discuss how to design and implement instruction in these areas that is consistent with the learning expectations in the Ontario Curriculum (early childhood, primary, and junior years). Pre-requiste: APD2210.

APD2220 H
Teaching Practicum
First year Child Study and Education students are placed in classrooms in the Institute's Laboratory School, in public and separate schools, and in other settings. Students are under the joint supervision of an associate teacher on site and an academic staff member at the Institute of Child Study. There are four practicum sessions, each providing 72 hours of practicum experience in four, six-week, half-day blocks. This course is normally open to students in the MA in Child Study and Education program only.

APD2221 Y
Advanced Teaching Practicum (Pass/Fail)
Second year Child Study and Education students carry out a single practicum placement called an internship during either the fall or winter term for a total of 320 practicum hours. Supervised by a mentor teacher on site and a staff member from the Institute of Child Study in an assigned setting from preschool through grade six, students have an opportunity to consolidate developing skills and attitudes as they apply their teaching skills. Note: This course is open only to students in the MA in Child Study and Education program.

APD2230 H
Designing Educational Programs
An educational program consists of a sequence of learning activities carried out over an extended period of time to accomplish a number of long-term learning goals. The main goal of this course is to help students learn how to plan educational programs that can accommodate a variety of children and achieve a variety of learning goals.

APD2252 H
Individual Reading and Research in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Master's Level
Specialized study, under the direction of a faculty member, focusing upon topics that are of particular interest to the student but are not included in available courses. While credit is not given for a thesis investigation proper, the study may be closely related to such a topic.

APD2275 H
Technology for Adaptive Instruction and Special Education
This course will examine the potential of microcomputer-based technology in various types of learning environments. The focus is on the use of adaptive and assistive technology as a tool to increase the teacher's ability to handle a wide range of student learning needs in main streamed classrooms. The course is suitable for students in the departments of Curriculum, Teaching and Learning and Applied Psychology and Human Development.

APD2280 H
Introduction to Special Education and Adaptive Instruction
A critical analysis of current issues related to identification and programming for children with special needs. The emphasis is on using well-founded research to inform instructional practices and decision-making. This course is designed to promote reflective thinking about key topics in Special Education that educators must conceptualize from both theoretical and practical perspectives. It is intended to provide students with knowledge, skills, and attitudes that will enable evidence-based understanding of what is involved in working with exceptional learners across a variety of settings, but primarily in an inclusive classroom situation. Focus is placed on curriculum being flexible in responding to diversity, so that teachers are guided to make appropriate accommodations and modified expectations for the various categories of exceptionality. Since characteristics of special needs and second language learners are often inter-related, ESL support will also be addressed.

APD2292 H
Assessment for Instruction
Critical analysis of assessment procedures including psychometric tests, curriculum-based assessment, and dynamic assessment and of the function of assessment in relation to adaptive instruction. A practical component is included. Prerequisite: APD2280 or equivalent.

APD2293 H
Interpretation of Educational Research [RM]
Introductory course in the critical evaluation of research reports. Emphasis on understanding and interpretation of the outcome of basic statistical and research methods. Hands-on experience in research design and report.

APD2296 H
Reading and Writing Difficulties
This course focuses on prevention and intervention in the area of reading and writing difficulties and disabilities. It is designed to prepare special educators and classroom teachers to implement evidence-based practice in the assessment and instruction of children with reading and writing problems. Half of the course is concerned with assessment, including informal and standardized approaches, and the remainder is concerned with research-based interventions to meet specific programming needs. Both parts involve hands-on strategies with children and adolescents who have serious reading and writing difficulties. Note: Permission of the instructor is required. Priority will be given to students with background knowledge and experience in child study and education, adaptive instruction and special education.

APD3200 H
Research Proseminar on Applied Psychology and Human Development
This course provides a doctoral-level survey of developmental psychology and the role of formal education in human development. At the end of the course, students are expected to have sufficient knowledge of the history and theories of developmental psychology and the role of education in development to be able to teach an introductory course in developmental psychology and education.

APD3201 H
Qualitative Research Methods in Applied Psychology and Human Development [RM]
This course provides an overview of qualitative research methodology and techniques. Coverage includes major philosophy of science, historical, and contemporary (critical, post modern, hermeneutic, constructivist and feminist) perspectives. Ethnographic, life history, individual and multiple case study, and focus group methods will be reviewed in relation to a narrative framework. Observational, interview, personal record and archival data management will be discussed. Students will have an opportunity to design, implement, analyze and report a micro qualitative study. Special emphasis will be placed on the use of computers and visual imaging techniques.

APD3202 H
A Foundation of Program Evaluation in Social Sciences
This doctoral-level course serves as an introduction to program evaluation used in education, psychology, and social sciences. Program evaluation aims to systematically investigate the process, effectiveness, and outcomes of programs. Its primary goal is to inform decision-making processes based on answers to why it works or doesn’t work and improve the quality of the program. In this course, students will learn the craft of program evaluation at various stages, including: critically appraising evaluation research; assessing program needs, developing a logic model, evaluating the process and outcomes of the program, evaluating efficiency, dealing with ethical issues, warranting evaluation claims and communicating with stakeholders. This course will focus on both theoretical and practical issues in designing, implementing, and appraising formative and summative evaluations of various educational and invention programs. In this course, we will consider the effects of various social, cultural and political contextual factors underlying the program.

APD3203 H
Children's Theory of Mind
This course examines children's developing understanding of themselves and other people as psychological beings, that is, as people who have beliefs, desires, intentions and emotions. It explores the implications of this development for children's social understanding in the preschool years and beyond, and for their understanding of thinking and learning in school. It also considers children with autism, who apparently fail to develop a theory of mind in the ordinary way, and evaluates different theoretical explanations of children's understanding of the mind.

APD3204 H
Contemporary History and Systems in Applied Psychology and Human Development
An examination of the historical and philosophical bases of modern theories of applied psychology. Emphasis is on counselling, developmental, and educational psychology. The goals of the course are 1) to make explicit the origins of current ideas in applied psychology, and 2) to demonstrate the importance of historical context in understanding research and practice issues.

APD3205 H
Social and Moral Development
This course examines theoretical perspectives and contemporary research on socialization processes in childhood and adolescence, with particular emphasis on interpersonal relations and values acquisition. Specific topics include: distinguishing characteristics of social cognition (e.g., self-understanding, perspective-taking, and sociomoral reasoning); aspects of social and moral experience (e.g., peer relations, prosocial behaviour); and political dimensions of interpersonal relations (e.g., social responsibility, prejudice) and their manifestation in behaviours such as civic commitment and bullying. The role of gender and culture in development are pervasive themes throughout the course. Note: Open to MA and PhD students in SCCP and DPE. Others by permission of the instructor.

APD3208 H
Adolescence
This course focuses on the distinguishing characteristics of development during the adolescent years as depicted in evolving psychological theory and contemporary research. Broad themes will include: adolescent thinking and decision-making; self-concept and identity formation; interpersonal relations, socio-moral development, and values acquisition; sexuality and health; and the role of gender and culture in shaping adolescent experience. The course is intended for students whose research focuses on adolescents and those who are working with adolescents in educational, clinical, and social contexts. Note: Preference will be given to AP&HD students. 

APD3215 H
Seminar in Counselling Psychology: Part I
Specific issues of counselling and psychotherapy are examined within an integrative framework of emotional processing. An in-depth examination of a counselling model will be included. Open to doctoral students in Counselling Psychology only.

APD3216 H
Seminar in Counselling Psychology: Part II
This course will focus on the application of a counselling model. Students will be required to see clients and develop mastery in the use of theory and techniques. They will gain experience in case formulation, the application of marker-guided interventions and the development and maintenance of the therapeutic alliance. Prerequisite: AEC3215.

APD3217 Y
Practicum II: Interventions in Counselling Psychology


A course aimed at the further enhancement of counselling skills through the integration of clinical experience and research. Ph.D. and Ed.D. students in Counselling Psychology are required to complete a 500 hour practicum field placement in conjunction with this course. All students must arrange their practica in consultation with the Department's Coordinator of Internships and Counselling Services. Continuing students should plan to contact the Coordinator by March 15th (preferably earlier) and new students as soon as they have been notified of their acceptance to the program.

APD3218 H
Research Seminar in Counselling [RM]
A weekly seminar focusing on design and methodology in counselling and psychotherapy research. Students will analyse and redesign representative studies in the counselling literature. Each student will design a study or research program based on a thorough review of a particular counselling research area. It is expected that the review and research design will serve as a basis for a dissertation proposal for many students. Open to Counselling Psychology students only.

APD3221 H
Cross-cultural Perspectives on Children's Problems
This course is designed to help students develop an appreciation that diversity issues may influence the way individuals act, the way their problems are expressed and conceived in their milieu and by outsiders, and the way assessment and interventions are treated. Through this course students will develop a solid understanding of the social bases of behavior. The course will examine from a cross-cultural perspective selected topics in psychology and human development pertaining to normative and pathological patterns of behavior in children and youth.

APD3222 Y
Approaches to Psychotherapy Across the Lifespan
The educational goals of this course are to: 1) develop a basic understanding of the major theoretical approaches in psychotherapy and to 2) develop basic psychotherapy skills. Focus of classes will vary, with some classes covering mostly theoretical information and others covering mostly practical skills. In addition, students will observe and, to the extent possible, take part in the provision of group and individual intervention services. Restricted to SCCP students only, others by permission of the instructor.

APD3224 H
Individual Cognitive and Personality Assessment
This course serves as an introduction and orientation to issues in psychological assessment. The principles of appropriate and ethical testing are reviewed with emphasis on psychometric theory, test standards, multicultural competence and communication of findings. Supervised practical experience is provided in the administration and interpretation of representative tests of intellectual achievement, personality, neuropsychological and occupational functioning to adults. Limited to Counselling Psychology for Psychology Specialists students.

APD3225 H
Assessment and Diagnosis of Personality and Psychopathology
This course serves as a continuation of APD3224H, with a focus on the critical analysis and in-depth understanding of selected theories of personality and diagnostic systems. Within this context, the results of personality inventories, standardized diagnostic interviews, behavioural measures, and neuropsychological tests will be used to prepare case formulations and treatment plans for adults. Prerequisites: APD3224 & APD3258. Limited to Counselling Psychology for Psychology Specialists Doctoral students.

APD3227 H
Multi-Level Modeling in Social Scientific and Educational Research [RM]
This is a graduate-level advanced statistics course designed for students in education and the social sciences whose research involves analyses of multi-level and/or longitudinal data. Examples of multi-level data include students nested within classrooms and schools, teachers nested within schools and school districts, children nested within families and neighbourhoods and employees nested within organizations. Examples of longitudinal data include repeated measures of child development, students' academic growth, teacher improvement and organizational change. Multi-level modeling, also called 'hierarchical linear modeling (HLM)', resolves the dilemma of 'units of analysis'. More importantly, it enables researchers to partition variance-covariance components with unbalanced data and to model cross-level effects with improved estimation of precision. This course will cover basic two-level and three-level models, growth curve models, and multi-level experimental and quasi-experimental designs. The objective is to equip students with knowledge and skills to apply multi-level models to their own research contexts. Prerequisite: APD1287 or equivalent.

APD3228 H
Mixed Methods Research Design in Social Sciences
Mixed methods research is increasingly being used as an alternative to the traditional mono-method ways of conceiving and implementing inquiries in education and social sciences. In conceptualizing mixed methods studies, various paradigmatic assumptions are still being debated. However, many researchers have stated that the paradigmatic differences have been overdrawn and that paradigmatic incompatibility makes dialogue among researchers less productive. Researchers further acknowledge that philosophical differences are reconcilable through new guiding paradigms that actively embrace and promote mixing methods. Mixed methods researchers reject traditional dualism and prefer action to philosophizing by privileging inquiry questions over assumptive worlds. In this course, students will be introduced to various mixed methods design alternatives that allow researchers to link the purpose of the research to methodologies and integrate findings from mixed methods. This course covers various phases of mixed methods research, including theoretical frameworks of mixed methods research designs, strategic mixed methods sampling, data collection methods, integrative data analysis strategies, and a mixed methods research proposal. This is a doctoral level course designed to serve students who plan to conduct independent research. Prior research experience or course work in research methods is advised. Note: Students who have previously taken course CTL1842, are prohibited from this course.

APD3231 H
Psychodynamic Bases of Therapy
This course will draw on contemporary psychoanalytic, cognitive and neuroscientific theories to provide an overview of clinical work with children and adolescents. We will also look at the state of empirical research on psychotherapy effectiveness. The focus will be on clinical observation and use of theory to arrive at an initial case formulation as well as the generation of ongoing hypotheses which inform clinical interventions. Emphasis will be placed on the current self-organization of the client, the transference and what is therapeutically usable or not usable at the present moment in treatment. In keeping with current psychoanalytic practice, therapy is seen from a relational perspective and interventions are rooted in dynamic systems theory. That is to say, while the major focus is on therapeutic dyad, foci will also include work with parents and /or macrosystems such as the classroom. There will be an equal emphasis on clinical work and on theory and students will be encouraged to bring ongoing case material to class.

APD3238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Doctoral Level: Understanding and Measuring Childcare Centre Quality
The focus of this course is on what makes for good quality child care conceptually and how those constructs can be measured. Developmental theories that apply to early childhood care and education settings will be examined. Research on what makes for good quality care will be considered and gaps in our knowledge will be identified and discussed. This is a PhD level course. Breadth of knowledge about early child development is required. Permission of instructor required.

APD3238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Doctoral Level: Resiliency in Children and Adolescents
This graduate seminar will provide an opportunity to review the theory and research that has emerged in the area of positive psychology that is related to child and adolescent resiliency development. Focus will be on the educational and other human service interventions that promote and sustain resiliency. Students will be encouraged to apply this perspective to the conceptualization and design of their own research and the research of other seminar participants. By permission of instructor.

APD3238 Y
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Doctoral Level: Psychological Foundations of Teacher Education: Effective Curriculum and Pedagogical Design
This course considers the psychological foundations of teacher education in general and initial teacher education in particular. It examines research-based evidence of what teachers should learn and be able to do, and looks at the intentional contribution that psychology can make in cultivating these competencies through effective pedagogical and curriculum design. Students will learn about the key ideas and concepts within the apprenticeship setting of a professional learning community. Authentic application and extensive practice opportunities will come by way of students’ membership on the core instructional team that is responsible for delivering the psychology requirement in the OISE initial teacher education program.

APD3238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Doctoral Level: Conceptual and Statistical Approaches to Complex Structures in Families
This course reviews the latest approaches in multilevel modelling that are applicable to the analysis of complex family data. Children’s development within the family are most appropriately analysed using multilevel modelling. Students will test family theory using complex statistical techniques. Students are expected to have access to a dataset that is suitable for analysis in a family framework. Prerequisites for this course include Multilevel Modelling in Social Scientific and Educational Research (APD3227) and Developmental Psychopathology (APD1236). Students are expected to be well versed in multilevel modelling, the literature on families and developmental psychopathology and have published in the family research domain. Permission of instructor is required for registration.

APD3238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Doctoral Level: Practicum in Psychotherapy with Adolescents and Adults
This course will provide a supervised experience in conducting psychotherapy with adolescents and adults. A particular focus will be clients with learning disabilities. While the approach to therapy will depend on the needs of the client, approaches emphasizing personal exploration will be emphasized, including person-centered and psychodynamically-oriented systems. Supervision will emphasize problem formulation, psychotherapy technique and transference and countertransference issues. Students should have prior relevant training and experience.

APD3238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Doctoral Level: Deception and Its Development
Deception is a pervasive human behaviour. It serves both adaptive and maladaptive functions for interpersonal interaction. In this course, we will explore the philosophical issues related to deception, the phenomenology of human deception, its biological basis and most importantly the ontogeny of deception in children as well as the practical implications of empirical research on deception and its development in educational, legal, and clinical contexts. By permission of instructor only.

APD3238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Doctoral Level: Representations of Emotions in Western Culture

 

APD3238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Doctoral Level: Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Focus on Cognition and Learning
This course is designed to provide students with an in-depth understanding of research on cognition (e.g., executive functions) in children and youth with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this course we will discuss the role of cognition in recent theoretical models of ADHD and examine the relations among cognition, attention and learning in children and youth with ADHD. This course will address a range of issues including the assessment of cognition and behaviour in ADHD and the need to consider comorbidity when studying ADHD. In addition, we will discuss intervention research from a cognitive perspective. Note: Permission of instructor required. Restricted to AP&HD Doctoral Students.

APD3238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Doctoral Level: Mindfulness and Its Role in Psychological Well-Being
This course will involve consideration of ‘mindfulness’ and its role in psychological well-being. We will discuss the relationship of the concept to Buddhist practice, its history in psychotherapy, its mechanisms of effectiveness, its relationship to the notion of acceptance, and research demonstrating its efficacy as an intervention for internalizing and externalizing disorders in children, adolescents and adults. We will also look at meditation strategies most likely to promote a mindful state of awareness.

APD3238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Doctoral Level: Categorical Data Analysis
The course introduces the main descriptive and inferential statistical techniques for binary, multiple-category and count data: proportions and odds ratios, multi-way contingency tables, generalized linear models, logistic regression for binary responses, multicategory logit models and loglinear models. The focus of the course is on the application of these techniques and interpretation of the results. NOTE: This course is intended primarily for AP&HD students. Others must seek the permission of the instructor to register. Prerequisite: APD1288 or equivalent.

APD3238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Doctoral Level: History of the Science of Consciousness
Psychology began as a science of consciousness, but in 1912 the APA abandoned the science of consciousness for the science of behavior. So how could Dennett (1991) publish his modern classic 'Consciousness Explained' and many others now say that science can no longer ignore the problem of consciousness. This course will compare old and new research programmes to study consciousness to determine whether this new science can avoid repeating history.

APD3238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Doctoral Level: Emotional Neurobiology and Personality Development
An examination of how emotional processes in the brain influence cognition and behaviour, and how that influence lays down the structure of personality over the early years of life.

APD3238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Doctoral Level: Item Response Theory for Test Construction
An advanced seminar focusing on the theory and practice of using item response theory (IRT) models to develop educational and psychological assessments. Permission of instructor required.

APD3238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Doctoral Level: Pedagogical and Educational Psychological Issues Within Technology Enabled Teaching
This course is designed to provide students with an in-depth understanding of key issues in using technology-mediated instruction.

APD3238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Doctoral Level: Early Learning and the Thesis
Students will develop a full thesis proposal including first three chapters of their thesis in rough draft form, a draft ethics review form, ensure internal consistency among research question(s) and research methodology(ies).

APD3238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Doctoral Level: Narrative and Cognition
Over the last two decades continuously increasing research literature in psychology and other human sciences has addressed the importance of narrative for the cognitive (as well as social, emotional and cultural) organization of the mind. At the same time, narrative has been investigated as a particular mode of thought - as a form and structure of experience, memory, consciousness and other areas of the mind traditionally being considered to realize important cognitive functions. The purpose of this course is to make participants familiar with the theoretical, empirical and methodological concepts and models fundamental to the understanding of this new field of research. The focus will be on approaches that aim to examine both the cognitive potentials of narrative and the narrative fabric of the mind.

APD3238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Qualitative Analysis in Applied Human Development Research
This course combines an overview of qualitative analysis in mixed-methods applied research and an in-depth examination of particular qualitative methods in case study examples of current or proposed research studies. Course will be offered on-line or in a blended approach combining on-line and face-to-face classes.

APD3238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Doctoral Level: Introduction to Practical and Conceptual Approaches to Multivariate Analysis
This course is a conceptual introduction to multivariate analyses with a heavy emphasis on using SPSS. Students will be walked through technical aspects of multivariate analysis. This course will build upon the student’s knowledge of multi-factor ANOVA, repeated measures/nested designs and ANCOVA. This course will focus on the multivariate analogues of these designs and will include topics such as MANOVA/MANCOVA (between-groups, repeated measures), contrast analysis and post hoc tests, underlying assumptions and effects of violating assumptions.

APD3238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Doctoral Level: Keystones of Treatment for Children with Severe Conduct Difficulties
We will be examining and discussing the concept of 'keystone skill'; those skills that when taught to children produce much broader positive effects than the specific behaviours being taught. By focusing on keystone skills, clinicians, parents and teachers can often make much more expansive and efficient changes in child behaviour than through the more traditional strategy of setting up contingencies around each individual target behaviour. We will discuss the conceptual underpinnings of the 'keystone approach', its pros and cons, and contrast it to the standard approach utilizing functional analysis and intervention designed around specific target behaviours.

APD3238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Doctoral Level: Providing Prevention and Early Intervention Services: An Overview of What We Really Do
In this course an overview will be presented of the most important aspects of early intervention including types of clinical interventions, the development of the infant and young child, and ways to assess and observe the child, parent-child interactions and other aspects of the environment which may impact on the developmental outcome of the child. Theoretical approaches from a transactional or ecological model will form the bases for the course and attachment, psychodynamic and other developmental theories will be considered as well. The contribution of these theories will be considered both in terms of the understanding of assessment of the child and family and in considering appropriate interventions strategies. Findings will be reviewed of evaluations of intervention programs and the efficacy of various interventions or therapeutic approaches. Research findings on the importance of various kinds of parent-child interventions for child development as well as the impact of parent, family and environmental influences on positive child outcomes or the development of psychopathology, will also be considered.

APD3238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Doctoral Level: Designing and Validating Educational and Cognitively Diagnostic Assessment
Cognitive diagnostic assessment (CDA) is a relatively new measurement approach to assess specific knowledge structures and processing skills that students have mastered in order to provide diagnostic feedback about their strengths and weaknesses. The CDA approach combines theories of cognition of interest with statistical models intended to make inferences about students’ mastery of tested skills. This is a doctoral-level seminar course. It will focus on cognitive theories underlying diagnostic assessment design, the construction of cognitively rich items, psychometric models used to estimate skill profiles, and the use of skill profiles in the context of teaching and learning. Throughout the course, we will discuss philosophical, theoretical and practical issues concerning diagnostic assessment and modeling, focusing on what makes the CDA approach distinct from other approaches.

APD3238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Doctoral Level: Advanced Intervention for Family Violence-Related Trauma
This course will provide an overview of assessment and treatment issues relevant to domestic violence, child emotional, physical and sexual abuse and child neglect. We will begin with a consideration of the incidence and impact of family violence. We will then cover a variety of interventions including PCITT, ITTM, Caring Dads, Partner programs. Also included will be a review of the systems in which children and families affected by family violence are involved including the education, legal, police and child protection systems.

APD3238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Doctoral Level: Advanced Programming for Reading and Writing Difficulties
This course focuses on prevention and intervention in the area of reading and writing difficulties and has both a classroom-based and a practicum component. In class, students critically review research-based interventions to meet specific programming needs for children and adolescents who have serious reading and writing difficulties. The practicum component involves implementing a theory-based remediation (with students of all ages) and consultation with teachers and parents. The course is intended to be useful in the training of psychometrists/psychologists. Note: This course is normally limited to students in School and Clinical Child Psychology. Permission of the instructor is required. Pre-requisites: APD1218 and APD1219 or equivalent.

APD3238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Doctoral Level: Models of Intervention for Language and Communication Disorders
This research seminar will address the effectiveness of current models of language intervention for children and adults with severe communication disorders due to developmental exceptionalities (e.g. developmental delay, autism, deafness, etc.). A range of intervention models will be considered, including directive and student-centred models, as well as the use of augmentative and alternative communication systems. Pragmatic and social-emotional outcomes will be highlighted.

APD3238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Doctoral Level: International Policy Perspectives on Early Learning
This course will provide students with access to ten of the world's most important thinkers. Interviews of these experts will take place; annotated bibliographies for each expert will be developed, and related written and electronic material will contribute to the creation of an 'electronic book' produced by the professors and students. Students will act as 'interview producers' preparing all the necessary background research and questions required for each interview and students will also lead on-line video conferencing seminars. The aim is 1) To provide cohort students with policy leadership from some the world’s most respected experts 2) To provide students with the opportunity to provide leadership through production and research support for interviews of each expert and to lead a seminar 3) To produce an organic electronic book comprised of one hour of interviews of all experts including an annotated bibliography for each expert, edited discussions of students for each seminar informed by the video interview and selected clips that illustrate practical examples of experts’ views 4) To provide a preliminary relationship-building exercise with key international leaders with a view towards developing a multi-national flex PhD program for the Fall of 2013.

APD3238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Advanced Child, Adolescent and Family Interventions Practicum
In this course, students will develop advanced skillls for intervening to address emotional and behavioural problems in children and youth. Students will provide theraphy to children, adolescents and families at OISE's Psychoeducational and Counselling Clinic. Class time will be used for individual and group supervision of the clinical work, as well as for educational seminars on advanced intervention issues such as complications in the use of empirically-validated treatement methods, considerations for culturally and lingusitically diverse clients, and implications of current research and theory on integrative methods of psychotheraphy.

APD3238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Doctoral Level: Knowledge and Social Evolution
An analysis of the changing role of knowledge in contemporary society and the implications for education.

APD3238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Doctoral Level: Assessing School-Aged Language Learners
This course focuses on theoretical issues and practical approaches associated with assessing the language development of school-aged students who learn English as a second or an additional language in K-12 curriculum learning contexts. These school-aged students represent various groups of language learners, including immigrant children, indigenous language-speaking students, and second or third-generation children who enter the school with fluent oral proficiency but with limited literacy skills in a language used as the medium of instruction at school. Students in both Master’s and Doctoral programs whose research interest and professional work are related to these populations may benefit from taking this course. In this course, students will engage in discussions about the complexity of assessment and tension arising from the multiple roles educators are asked to play in assessing language learners. Students are expected to develop assessment competencies required to develop the ability to design, implement, and critically evaluate assessment.

APD3238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Doctoral Level: Language, Literacy and Literature
This course examines the development of literacy and literary understanding, from preschool to adulthood. We will look at the relationship between young children’s language, theory of mind and early narrative understanding. We will examine, for instance, when children begin to represent their reader when they write texts; and when they represent the writer when they read texts. The new field of Cognitive Poetics, which integrates psychology and literature, will be introduced. We will discuss 'poetic literacy,' in particular, the comprehension of literary metaphor. Finally we will examine 'internet literacy,' for instance, the derivation of meaning from hypertext.

APD3238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Doctoral Level: The Study of Adolescent Social Cognition
This course is designed for doctoral students who are engaged in mixed-methods approaches to the study of adolescent social cognition. We will examine the conceptual and empirical rationales for a range of established techniques for the assessment of constructs such as social perspective taking, moral reasoning, self-understanding and belief identification. Specific methodological strategies under discussion will include the use of social vignettes or dilemmas, semi-structured interviewing and narrative techniques, and varying approaches to the interpretive analysis of the data elicited by each. In addition, the course will provide an opportunity for students to work collaboratively to address the challenges of their own research projects. Pre-requisites: APD3205 Social and Moral Development (or the equivalent), HDP1288 Intermediate Statistics and Research Design, and CTL1842 Mixed-Methods Research in Education: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Inquiries. By permission of instructor.

APD3238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Doctoral Level: Manuscript Preparation in Early Child Development
This course will address the need for graduate students to get their research published and will be coherent with one departmental focus - early child development. The small class format will allow graduate students time for supervised and collaborative writing. Topics will fall under the broad area of early child development including specific research areas such as family literacy, literacy development, parent involvement, drawing, writing numerical understanding, social-emotional development and early childhood policy. The class will meet every two weeks throughout the academic year. Students will take turns providing readings and presenting their own writing in progress for review and feedback by their class colleagues. Each student will submit at least one paper to a journal for publication.

APD3238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Doctoral Level: Early Learning Practice, Research, and Policy
This is the introductory course for the Phd. (flex-time) program in Early Learning. This experience is designed to ensure that the students in the cohort become a 'learning community' that enables individual progress throughout the program through group support and the expertise and experience that each student brings to the group. Key to the study of early learning and related issues is the interplay of research, practice and policy and the cross-cutting importance of equity and dealing effectively with diversity.

APD3238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Doctoral Level: Emotions in Social Interaction
In this course we will examine the role of emotions in social interaction. We shall use theoretical approaches from cognitive science, and review findings in a range of areas that will include: emotional biases in temperament, emotions and socialization in family interaction and at school, the functions of emotions in childhood and adult relationships of cooperation, support, and conflict, and emotions in adult sexual relationships. In addition to considering the influence of emotions on ordinary relationships, we will review emotionality in child and adult psychopathology as they affect social interaction, and are affected by social contexts. We aim to develop a theory of how emotions provide structure for relationships, guide interactions and form some of the sinews of society.

APD3238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Doctoral Level: Mixed/Multi Methods, Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Research
The goal of this course is to provide students with the essential knowledge and skills to conduct all stages of the research process using qualitative, quantitative and mixed-methods approaches. The topics discussed in this course include formulation of research questions, working with the literature, research design and design of the data collection instruments, methods of data collection, quantitative and qualitative data analysis, interpretation of the results and report writing. At the end of this course students should be able to: 1) Better understand their own research interests and orientations 2) Conduct efficient literature search and review 3) Critically evaluate published research reports using the indicators of good research 4) Develop understanding of various methodological designs 5) Identify different sampling strategies and understand their benefits and disadvantages 6) Develop skills in selection and design of data collection instruments 7) Understand approaches to qualitative and quantitative analyses of empirical data 8) Gain practical knowledge and skills in interpretation and reporting of research results 9) Learn how to prepare and execute a feasible research project.

APD3238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Doctoral Level: Seminar on Social Relationships of Children and Adolescents with Disabilities: Self, Peers and Families
This seminar course will explore the self-perceptions, peer relations, and parent-child interactions of children and youth with disabilities with a focus on ADHD and learning disabilities. Students will read about normal child and adolescent development in these areas, and theories and research that purport to explain why children and youth with disabilities have altered self-perceptions and often experience challenging relationships with their peers and families.

APD3238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Doctoral Level: Psychology and Education of Students with ADHD
This course focuses on ADHD and evidence-based approaches to its assessment, diagnosis, and intervention. The course has three major sections. To understand ADHD, it is necessary to be familiar with the historical changes in its conceptualization, the developmental changes in its clinical manifestation (particularly in the educational setting), its current neuroscientific understanding, and its life-span impairments in academic, social and occupational functioning. We will explore these topics in the first part of the course. In the second section, we will explore issues and practices around assessment and diagnosis, from three perspectives (medical, educational, and neuroscience), to understand ongoing controversies and delineate best practices. The third section of the course will focus on evidence-based interventions (medical, educational), with emphasis on school-based, class-wide approaches and educational accommodations. During this course we will debate current controversial issues, such as the validity of this clinical condition, evidence of permanent disability, pharmacological intervention, evidence for and effectiveness of educational accommodations, feigning ADHD symptoms etc. Students will learn assessment methodologies as well as evidenced-based intervention approaches for individual students, small groups, inclusive classrooms, and special education settings.

APD3238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Doctoral Level: Advanced Topics in Second Language (L2) Literacy Development
This course will involve an exploration of contemporary issues concerning literacy development in second language learners, with a particular emphasis on immigrant students. The course will explore cognitive, developmental, contextual, and instructional frameworks that are important to consider with regard to literacy development in L2 contexts. Theoretical frameworks focusing on universal and language specific considerations and on child development will be explored. Approaches to the study of 'transfer' and their applications will be examined, including the effect of spoken and written language typologies and inter-language transfer. Factors that enhance L2 learning or that place L2 learners at risk will be examined, as will be instructional, diagnostic, and intervention issues concerning the intersection of L2 learning and learning disabilities. A discussion of advanced relevant methodological and statistical approaches will be integrated.

APD3238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Doctoral Level: Cognitive Psychology of Plans and Action

APD3238 H
Special Topics in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Doctoral Level: Childhood Psychopathology in School Psychology

APD3240 H
Advanced Social and Emotional Assessment Techniques
This practicum course introduces the student to the work of clinical assessment. Questionnaire and projective tests are used to assist in developing a picture of the emotional experience and the social environment of the child/adolescent. These factors are integrated with measures of cognitive ability and academic skill development to obtain an overview of psychological functioning. This half-credit course is scheduled on alternate weeks for the academic year. Open to School and Clinical Child Psychology students only. Prerequisites: APD1216 or equivalent and APD1218 or equivalent and permission of the instructor.

APD3241 H
Seminar and Practicum in Assessment and Intervention with Children (Pass/Fail)
This course supports and monitors the development of the Ph.D. students' clinical skills (assessment and intervention) in the field placement. Placements are typically in clinical settings. Seminars are scheduled on alternate weeks for the academic year. They focus on issues related to diagnosis, intervention and clinical practice. Note: Open only to School and Clinical Child Psychology students. Students are expected to consult with Dr. Caravias to arrange their practicum placement in the year prior to taking this course or as soon as they are accepted into the program. Pre-requisite: APD1218 or equivalent and permission of the instructor.

APD3242 Y
Internship in School and Clinical Child Psychology (Pass/Fail)
This is a 1600 hour placement completed in the third or fourth year of doctoral study. Pre-requisites: APD3241H and permission of instructor.

APD3243 H
Additional PhD Practicum
This optional practicum course is an additional practicum course that is available to School and Clinical Child Psychology (SCCP) program students at the PhD level. Students take it as an optional course beyond their program requirements. The course exists entirely to support students’ development of their clinical skills. Students may register in this course any time that they commence a field placement experience under the supervision of a registered psychologist, providing that the placement is unpaid. Students may register in this course multiple times to permit a broad variety of assessment, intervention and supervisory experiences. Students may register for this course only with the permission of the course instructor. There are three restrictions on enrollment: 1) There is a signed agreement between the supervisor and the students with regard to the new skills that the student will acquire. 2) For each registration, the student must remain in the placement for a minimum of 100 hours to ensure that the supervisor has had ample time to observe and evaluate. 3) The total of clinical hours accrued in this open practicum course must not exceed 500 hours.

APD3252 H
Individual Reading and Research in Applied Psychology and Human Development: Doctoral Level
Specialized study, under the direction of a faculty member, focusing upon topics that are of particular interest to the student but are not included in available courses. While credit is not given for a thesis investigation proper, the study may be closely related to such a topic.

APD3253 H
Individual Reading and Research in Counselling Psychology: Doctoral Level
Specialized study, under the direction of a faculty member, focusing upon topics that are of particular interest to the student but are not included in available courses. While credit is not given for a thesis investigation proper, the study may be closely related to such a topic.

APD3255 H
Systemic Family Therapy
The aim of this course is to introduce students to family therapy concepts and interventions for use in the practice of school and clinical child psychology. Structural, strategic, narrative and transgenerational models are considered through discussion of readings, videotape analysis and practical exercises.

APD3258 H
Special Topics in Counselling Psychology: Object Relations Theory: Part II
This course covers Melanie Klein's development of the Depressive Position with an emphasis on understanding the object relations of this position, its main anxieties, emotional development and main psychological defence mechanisms. Case examples involving depressive reactions, manic defences and reparation will be discussed.

APD3258 H
Special Topics in Counselling Psychology: Object Relations Theory: Part III
The Early Stages of the Oedipus Complex. In this Part modifications of the Oedipus theory, its object relations, and development will be presented. Melanie Klein's Psychoanalytic Technique with children and adults will be discussed.

APD3258 H
Special Topics in Counselling Psychology: Body and Self Experience at the Intersection of Body and Culture: An Advanced Research Seminar
The goal of this seminar is to facilitate the research process of students who conduct thesis work on topics which examine the relationships between body and culture and the impact of these relationships on self and body experience as well as on body practices. The course, hence, focuses on research that is located at the intersection of psychology and sociology.

APD3258 H
Special Topics in Counselling Psychology: Theories of Psychopathology: Etiology and Diagnosis
This course will present a critical examination of current theories and etiological perspectives on psychopathology. Students will be expected to acquire an in-depth understanding and knowledge of the defining characteristics of major clinical/psychological disorders as well as current diagnostic systems and practices.

APD3260 H
Psychodiagnostic Systems
This course is designed to provide an in-depth understanding and working knowledge of the defining characteristics of major clinical/psychological disorders as well as current diagnostic systems and practices. Students will develop skills in synthesizing clinical material and formulating/making differential diagnoses based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders (DSM-IV-TR). The course will also provide some opportunity to critically examine current theories and etiological perspectives on psychopathology with attention to gender and cultural issues. The course material will include video recordings for illustration of diagnostic issues and clinical syndromes as well as for practice purposes. [For Ph.D. students in Counselling Psychology only.

APD3268 Y
Ph.D. Internship
This course requires the completion of at least 2000 hours of internship under the supervision of a registered psychologist. Students will register in the course once the placement has been arranged and approved by the course instructor. Placements are generally expected to fulfil the criteria of the Association of Psychology Postdoctoral and Internship Centres (APPIC). The internships may be served in a variety of settings and will normally involve instruction in psychopathology, training in differential diagnosis and assessment, case conceptualisation, treatment planning, a variety of psychotherapeutic approaches, case management, and other related tasks. All students must have a formal diagnosis and assessment component as part of their internship hours. It is expected that students will involve themselves in such activities as diagnosis and assessment, case conceptualisation, treatment planning, psychological interventions, consultations with other professionals, report writing, case conferences, and other activities relevant to professional training. It is also generally expected that where possible, students will have contact with clients reflecting a range of diversity (e.g., clients who derive from various cultural, ethnic, social or linguistic groups and/or who bring other types of minority issues, such a gender identity or disability). Students are expected to find placements at training sites accredited by the Canadian Psychological Association (CPA) or the American Psychological Association (APA), or equivalent. Note: For Ph.D. students in Counselling Psychology only.

APD3269 H
Research Seminar in Critical Multicultural Counselling and Psychotherapy (Doctoral Level)
This course will familiarise doctoral students with current issues and debates concerning the theory and practice of counselling and psychotherapy in a multicultural society. The course seeks to define, redefine and locate multicultural counselling and psychotherapy research within the broader economic, social and political contexts of health care provision and practices (particularly in Canada). Through a post-colonial critique of psychiatry, clinical and counselling psychology, psychoanalysis, psychotherapy and counselling, the course attempts to raise questions regarding the theory, practice and research with ethnic minority clients. The course also offers a critical examination of the concepts of multicultural, multiethnic, cross-cultural, inter-cultural and other nomenclatures, particularly assessing the epistemological and ontological histories and complexities in relation to psychological frames of thinking and feeling. Particular emphasis will be given to understanding the relationship of qualitative and quantitative research in this field. The course will also respond to significant developments within the wider context of ‘discourses of the other’, for example, feminist research methods, research and class, disability and sexual orientation will form part of the discussion in seminars. The course is appropriate for students considering a dissertation proposal in multicultural counselling and psychotherapy. A weekly seminar will focus on research methods and methodologies, the design and structure of the research, sampling procedures, ethical issues, empirical constraints and production of new knowledge/s. Students will review, analyse and redesign representative studies in multicultural counselling literature which will eventually lead to a doctoral thesis proposal.

APD3270 H
Ed.D. Internship
All students completing an Ed.D. in Counselling Psychology for Community Settings will be required to complete the doctoral internship course. This course requires the completion of at least hours of internship under the supervision of an experienced psychotherapist or counsellor approved by the Counselling Psychology Internship Coordinator. Ed.D. students in the Counselling Program have been completing this 500-hour internship requirement since the inception of this program. We wish to ensure that the completion of this requirement appears on the student’s transcript as a completed course requirement. Students will register in the course once the placement has been arranged and approved by the course instructor. The internship may be accomplished on either a full-time or part-time basis. The internships may be served in a variety of settings and will normally involve case conceptualisation, treatment planning, counselling interventions, consultations with other professionals, report writing, case conferences, and other activities relevant to professional training. It is also generally expected that, where possible, students will have contact with clients reflecting a range of diversity (e.g., clients who derive from various cultural, ethnic, social or linguistic groups and/or who bring other types of diversity issues, such a gender identity or disability).

APD3271 H
Additional Doctoral Practicum
This optional practicum course is an additional practicum course that is available to Counselling Psychology (CP) program students at the PhD or EdD level. Students take it as an optional course beyond their program requirements. The course exists entirely to support students’ development of their clinical skills. PhD students may register in this course any time that they commence a field placement experience under the supervision of a registered psychologist, providing that the placement is unpaid. Similarly EdD students may register in this course any time that they commence a field placement experience under the supervision of an appropriately trained professional psychotherapist, providing that the placement is unpaid. Students may register in this course multiple times to permit a broad variety of assessment, intervention and supervisory experiences. Students may register for this course only with the permission of the course instructor. There are three restrictions on enrollment: 1) There is a signed agreement between the supervisor and the student with regard to the new skills that the student will acquire. 2) For each registration, the student must remain in the placement for a minimum of 100 hours to ensure that the supervisor has had ample time to observe and evaluate. 3) The total of clinical hours accrued in each registration in this open practicum course will not normally exceed 500 hours.

APD3286 H
Developmental Neurobiology
In this course we will focus on brain systems involved in human emotion and self-regulation and track their development from birth to adulthood. We will pay particular attention to the ways in which experience modifies corticolimbic systems, leading to the consolidation of individual differences in temperament and personality. We will then explore the implications of these processes for atypical development and developmental psychopathology.

APD3297 H
Biological and Psychological Foundations of Low Incidence Disorders
This course will focus on current knowledge of various low incidence disorders (those typically represented in one percent of the population or less), especially conditions that are first diagnosed in infancy or childhood. We will discuss both biological and psychological factors playing a role in the etiology and discuss characteristic profiles for specific disorders. We will also consider potential interventions for prevention and treatment of the various disorders. Disorders to be considered include (but are not limited to) mental retardation, autistic disorder, Rett's disorder, Asperger's disorder, tic disorders, selective mutism, pica, enuresis stereotypy and feeding disorders. For covering course material, the problem-based learning model will be used.

APD5284 Y
Assessment and Intervention in Multicultural/Bilingual Contexts
The purpose of this course is to explore, from a multidimensional perspective, assessment and intervention issues and techniques arising when learners in second language or multicultural contexts experience learning difficulties. Through readings, classroom discussion, case studies, and client-work, the course is intended to help students become better aware and better prepared for work with individuals in culturally and linguistically diverse settings. Students are expected to integrate and apply such diverse areas as second language acquisition, learning disabilities, cognitive and affective functioning, and to consider alternative assessment and intervention practices. Note: Open to doctoral students in School and Clinical Child Psychology only; others by permission of instructor.

 


 

 


 

 


 

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