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Applied Psychology &  Human Development



Kang Lee 

Dr. Eric Jackman Institute of Child Study
Ontario Institute for Studies in Education
56 Spadina Rd. Room 305

Tel:  (416) 934-4597
Fax: (416) 978-6485


Associate Editor, Developmental Science
Kang Lee's Lab Webpage


Lying in children and adults; face processing

Research Projects/Activities

Development of Face Processing Expertise 
Children’s Moral Conceptions of Lying
Genotyping and Phenotyping of Chinese Children with Mental Retardation
Children's Reports of Stressful Events: Bridging Psychological & Legal Perspectives see http://qsilver.queensu.ca/law/witness/witness.html
The Emergence of Social Attention-Sharing in Infancy
For more information please contact Dr Lee at kang.lee@utoronto.ca


Research Interests

I have two major foci of research:

The first focus is on lying in children and adults. I use experimental methods to investigate how children come to grips with the concept and moral implication of lying, whether children are gullible or they are able to detect others’ lies, and whether children can tell convincing lies in various social situations. I also examine the cognitive-social-cultural factors that affect children’s acquisition of conceptual and moral knowledge about lying and their ability to detect/tell lies successfully. In addition, I explore neuro-physiological correlates of lying in children and adults.

The second focus of my research is on face processing in children and adults. I use psychophysical methods to study how children and adults process both stable and dynamic information in a face. With regard to stable facial information processing, I focus on how children and adults perceive, encode, and recognize different kinds of faces. With regard to dynamic facial information processing, I study how children and adults detect and interpret others’ gaze displays in various social contexts. In addition, I explore neuro-physiological correlates of face processing in children and adults.

Applied/Clinical Interests

Children as witnesses in legal cases.

Representative Publications

Sample Peer-Reviewed Papers

Lee, K., Anzures, G., Quinn, P.C., Pascalis, O., & Slater, A. (in press). Development of face processing expertise. In A. J. Calder, G. Rhodes, J.V. Haxby, & M. H. Johnson (Eds.), Handbook of face processing. Oxford University Press. (Eds.), Handbook of Face Processing. Oxford University Press.

Lee, K., Quinn, P.C., Pascalis, O., & Slater, A. (in press). Development of face processing abilities. In Zelazo, Ph. (Ed.), Oxford Handbook of Developmental Psychology. Oxford University Press.

Ge, L., Anzures, G., Zhe, W., Kelly, D., Quinn, P.C., Pascalis, O., Slater, A., & Lee, K. (2008). An inner-face advantage in children’s recognition of familiar peers. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 101, 124-136.

McCleery, J. P., Zhang, L., Ge, L., Wang, Z., Christiansen, E. M., Lee, K., & Cottrell, G.W. (2008). The roles of visual expertise and visual input in the face inversion effect:  Behavioral and neurocomputational evidence. Vision Research, 48, 703–715

 Quinn, P.C., Lee, K., Pascalis, O., & Slater, A. (2008). In support of an expert-novice difference in the representation of humans versus non-human animals by infants: Generalization from persons to cats occurs only with upright whole images. Cognition, Brain, & Behavior, 11, 679-69

Quinn, P.C., Kelly, D. J., Lee, K., Pascalis, O., & Slater, A.M. (2008). Preference for attractive faces in human infants extends beyond conspecifics. Developmental Science, 11, 76–83.

Kelly, D. J., Quinn, P.C., Slater, A.M., Lee, K., Ge, L., & Pascalis, O. (2007). The other-race effect develops during infancy: Evidence of perceptual narrowing. Psychological Science, 18, 1084-1089

Quinn, P.C., Uttley, L., Lee, K., Gibson, A. Smith, M., Slater4, A., & Pascalis, O. (2007). Infant Preference for Female Faces Occurs for Same- but not Other-Race Faces. Journal of Neuropsychology, 1–13.

Liu, J., Tian, J., Li, J., Gong, Q., & Lee, K. (in press). Similarities in Neural Activations of Face and Chinese Character Discrimination. Neuroreport.

Li, J., Liu, J., Liang, J., Tian, J., & Lee, K. (in press). A distributed neural system for top-down face processing. Neuroscience Letters.

Zhang, H., Liu, J., Huber, D. E., Rieth, C., Tian, J., & Lee, K. (2008). Detecting faces in pure noise images: An fMRI study on top-down perception. Neuroreport, 19, 229-233.

Talwar, V., & Lee, K. (2008). Social and cognitive correlates of children’s lying Behavior. Child Development, 79, 866 – 881.

Fu. G., Wang, L., Evans, A. D., & Lee, K. (2008). Lying in the Name of Collective Good: A Developmental Study. Developmental Science, 11, 495–503.

Harada, T., Sadato, N., Itakura, S., Xu, F., & Lee, K. (in press). Neural correlates of the judgment of lying: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Neuroscience Research.

Heyman, G., Fu, G., & Lee, K. (in press). Reasoning about the disclosure of success and failure to friends among children in the U.S. and China . Developmental Psychology.

Heyman, G., Sweet, M., & Lee, K. (in press). Children's Reasoning About Lie-Telling and Truth-Telling in Politeness Contexts. Social Development.

Leach, A., Lindsay, R., Talwar, V., Lee, K., & Bala, N. (in press). The Reliability of Lie Detection Performance. Law and Human Behavior.

Boseovski, J. & Lee, K. (in press). Seeing the world through rose-colored glasses? Neglect of consensus information in preschooler’s personality judgments. Social Development.

Talwar, V., Gordon, H., & Lee, K. (2007). Lying in elementary school years: Verbal deception and its relation to second-order belief understanding. Developmental Psychology, 43(3), 804-810.

Talwar, V., Murphy, S., & Lee, K. (2007). White lie-telling in children for politeness purposes. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 31(1), 1-11.

Talwar, V., & Lee, K. (2008). Little liars: How children learn to do deceptive things with words? In S. Itakura & K. Fujita (Eds.), Origins of the social mind: Evolutionary and developmental views. Springer

Kelly, D. J., Quinn, P. C., Slater, A. M., Lee, K., Gibson, A., Smith, M., Ge, L., & Pascalis, O(2006). Three-month-olds, but not newborns, prefer own-race faces. Developmental Science. (Fast track).

Sabbagh, M., Xu, F., Carlson, S., Moses, L., & Lee, K. (2005). The development of executive functioning and theory-of-mind: A comparison of Chinese and U.S. preschoolers. Psychological Science.

Bala, N., Ramakrishnan, K., Lindsay, R. , & Lee, K.  (2005). Judicial assessment of the credibility of child witnesses. Alberta Law Review, 42, 1-23.

Leach, A. M., Talwar, V., Lee, K., Bala, N., & Lindsay, R.C.L. (2005). "Intuitive lie detection" of children’s deception by law enforcement officials and university students. Law and Human Behavior, 28, 661-85. For pdf file, click here

Freire, A., Eskritt, M., & Lee, K. (2004). Are eyes windows to a deceiver's soul: Children's use of another's eye gaze cues in a deceptive situation. Developmental Psychology, 40, 1093-1104. For pdf file, click here.  

Symons, L. A., Lee. K., Cedrone, C.C., & Nishimura, M. (2004). What are you looking at? Acuity for triadic eye gaze. Journal of General Psychology, 131, 451-469. For pdf file, click here.

Talwar, V., Lee, K., Bala, N., & Lindsay, R.C.L. (2004). Children's lie-telling to conceal a parent's transgression: Legal implications. Law and Human Behavior. For pdf file, click here.
Freire, A., Lee., K., Williamson, K.S., Stuart, S.J.E., & Lindsay, R. C. L. (2004). Lineup identification by children: Effects of clothing bias. Law and Human Behavior, 28, 339-354. For pdf file, click here

Fritzley, V. H., & Lee, K. (2003). Do young children always say yes to yes/no questions? A metadevelopmental study of the affirmation bias. Child Development, 74, 1297-1313. For pdf file, click here.


Lee, K. (1999, Ed.). Blackwell’s reader in cognitive development. Oxford , UK.: Blackwell.

Book Chapters

Freire, A. & Lee. K. (2004). Person recognition by young children: Configural, featural, and paraphernalia processing. In O. Pascalis & A. Slater (Eds.), The development of face processing in infancy and early childhood: current perspectives (pp.191-205). New York : Nova Science Publishers. For pdf file, click here. 

Lee, K., & Freire, A. (2003). Cognition in adolescence. In A. Slater & J. G. Bremner (Eds.)

Developmental Psychology (pp.359-387). Oxford : Blackwell.

Please email me at: kanglee@oise.utoronto.ca for a reprint request.