Select activity words that you will use to clap syllables, identify rhyming words, and blend/segment individual sounds or larger sound parts of words
Invite the students to participate in the following activities:
Have students say and clap the syllables in spoken words
Have students say the number of syllables in each word
Orally provide students with a word in parts (could be individual sounds, onsets and rimes, or syllables) and have them blend the sounds together to figure out the word
For example: “Here is the secret word: /c/ /a/ /t/. What word do those sounds make?” “If I add the sound /s/ to the beginning of the word “talk”, what word do I get?”
Have students determine if 2 one-syllable words rhyme by showing a thumbs up or a thumbs down
If words do not rhyme, invite students to provide rhyming words
Have students orally identify the rhyming part, for example “king, sing, they both say ing” or “rich, pitch, they both say ich”
Have students hold their arms out to use when segmenting one-syllable words you provide orally
As students sound out each word have them “chop up” their arm to represent each sound
Ask students what sounds they heard in the word
English Language Learners/ESL:
- Provide opportunities for students to work in small groups and exaggerate each sound - During practice saying letter sounds in isolation, point to your mouth and tell student to look and say the correct response
LD/Reading & Writing Difficulties:
- Provide some easy words so these students can experience success - Using multisensory methods (such as having students show the number of sounds on their arm) may support these students - Give these students plenty of practice and feedback
Cultural Appropriateness & Diversity:
- Choose familiar words
- Have students participate in a variety of the listed activities on a regular basis - Provide words at varying levels of difficulty - Don't cold-call students unless you are sure they know the answer
Evidence: Cummings, K.D., Kaminski, R.A., Good, R.H. & O'Neil, M. (2011). Assessing phonemic awareness in preschool and kindergarten: Development and initial validation of first sound fluency. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 36, 94-106.
The goal of Sound Skills Review: Building Up to Phonemic Awareness is to build students' awareness of the sound structure of spoken words by playing with sounds in various ways that support and/or develop phonemic awareness.
What You Need
10 minutes - Select activity words
10-20 minutes - Teacher leads review of phonemic awareness and phonological awareness concepts
Teacher: - Chart paper - Markers
What You Do
Facilitator: - while students play with the sound structure of spoken words in various ways
Whole class: - while students play with the sound structure of spoken words in various ways
- Use a checklist to track students' development of phonemic awareness
- As a formative assessment provide oral feedback to students as a whole class
- Work with students on the same activities during small group instruction or one-on-one conferences
- Turn the activities into a guessing game by having students work in pairs a. Students take turns sounding out and guessing each word
- Create a Building Phonemic Awareness center and include the instructions of each activity and a set of pictured words (e.g. a picture of a cat) or audio-taped words for students to work with
- Helping students build an awareness of the individual sounds in spoken language through active participation leads to increased skills in reading and spelling.
- Use these activities on a daily basis to help build students' phonemic awareness. Oral participation and rapid pacing helps students to stay engaged in the activity.
- Keep in mind the differences between phonics instruction and phonemic awareness. Phonics is the relationships between spoken sounds and written letters. Phonemic awareness is the ability to hear and manipulate individual sounds in spoken words. The last activity in the video "adding sounds to make words" involves both phonics and phonemic awareness.
- Strategically seat students who may require cues to refocus