Write 4-5 comprehension questions related to the text if they have not been provided
Introduce the text by telling the student the main idea
Invite the student to read the text aloud
As the student reads aloud, use the recording form to record a checkmark above every word that he/she reads correctly
Record errors using symbols and marking conventions (see Additional Comments)
For example: word substitutions, word omissions, inserting words, must be told a word
If you wish to assess comprehension, ask the student to retell the main events of the text and answer 4-5 comprehension questions
Record the student’s responses
Record strengths and next steps at the bottom of the form and provide the student with oral feedback if appropriate
English Language Learners/ESL:
- Have the student use the text as a guide while retelling the main events of the story - Encourage the student to look at the pictures for clues to help him/her read the words
LD/Reading & Writing Difficulties:
- Provide student with prompts during the read aloud and when answering questions, making note of this on the recording form - Allow the student to use the text as a guide when retelling the main events and answering comprehension questions
Cultural Appropriateness & Diversity:
- Allow the students to make personal connections to the text - Select texts that are culturally inclusive - Select texts with familiar contexts
- Allow the student to retell the text in his/her own words following the read aloud - Select a variety of texts at various levels
Source: Clay, M. (2000). Running Records for Classroom Teachers. Portsmouth, NA: Heinemann.
Evidence: Ross, J. A. (2004). Effects of running records assessment on early literacy achievement. Journal of Educational Research, 97, 186.
The goal of Running Records: Assessing and Improving Students' Reading Fluency is to use a method promoted by Marie Clay to assess reading fluency and accuracy to help students improve their reading.
What You Need
20 minutes - Select levelled texts - Prepare the recording forms
20-30 minutes - Teacher introduces text - Student reads aloud selected text and answers comprehension questions - Teacher records information on recording form
Teacher: - Levelled texts - Recording form - Pencil
What You Do
Direct instruction: - while introducing text Supporter: - while student reads aloud and teacher records information
Individual: - during introduction of text, read aloud and recording of information
- Record errors while student reads aloud text on the recording form
- Record each students strengths and next steps on the recording form
- Meet with each student 2-3 times throughout the year and track their growth in fluency and comprehension
- Running records are a formative assessment and should guide small group instruction and help you plan for whole group instruction. They allow you to assess a student's reading fluency and comprehension, and are objective and reliable. They can help by: a. Giving you information about a student's reading level so you can choose texts at an appropriate level b. Showing you where the student is having difficulty through an analysis of their errors and other observations (for example, are they reading extremely slowly? Are they having difficulty recognizing common high frequency words? Are they having trouble sounding out words? Are they guessing at words? Do they keep reading even when sentences dont make sense?) This can allow you to target instruction.
- Select a text you believe is at the student's reading level and that they have not seen before. You may need to complete more than one running record to get an accurate assessment of the students reading performance.
- Try to select texts that are between 100-150 words and that are accompanied with forms that include the text already printed on the form. This will allow you to pay close attention to the student's reading performance. If this kind of form is not available write the words that the student says while he/she reads the selected text.
- Assess the student's comprehension after he/she has read the text by asking meaningful questions. Questions may include retelling events from the story and making inferences and connections.
- Allow the student to read without interruptions. This will provide you with an accurate assessment of his/her reading ability.
- Use the Running Records Symbols and Marking Conventions form as a guide:http://k-5literacyconnections.weebly.com/uploads/4/4/7/9/4479989/running_record_symbols_and_marking_conventions.pdf
- Find a quiet space to assess reading performance so that students are not disturbed by sound
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