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Treaties and Land Claims



CN bridge offer 'bad faith', Fort William First Nation chief says

CBC News online, By Jody Porter, February 15, 2015

Ontario First Nations ready to die defending lands: Chiefs

CBC News online, By Maria Babbage The Canadian Press, July 30, 2014

CBC News in Depth: The Treaties - A summary

Provides a short description of who is covered by treaties and the numbered treaties. Dated: November 17th, 2005.

Looking Forward, Looking Back:  Canada's Response to Land claims 

This article explores the legal dimensions of land claims issues with respect to First Nations and the Canadian government. 


FEDCAN Blog Post: A History of the 1764 Treaty at Niagara

Woven with a personal story of one woman’s journey of honoring this treaty. (Grades 11 and 12)


Journeying Forward

By: Patricia Monture Angus, 1999.

From Google Books: "Questioning the ability of political organizations to assist in fully eradicating the oppression of First Nations and their citizens, the author critically reflects on the meaning of "self-government"—and the obstacles as well as solutions to some of its challenges. Concluding that self-government as a goal is too narrow and overly inundated by colonial meanings to be a full solution, Monture-Angus rejects the idea of "self-government" in favor of a much larger idea, independence."

Canada's First Nations: A History of Founding Peoples From Earliest Times

By: Olive Dickason. C.M., Ph.D., D.Litt. 

Olive Dickason was one of Canada's foremost historians, contributing greatly to our understanding and knowledge of Aboriginal and Metis People. Throughout her career as a journalist, professor, and scholar she was an inspiration and role model for students, women and her Aboriginal community. (Ottawa Citizen, March 14, 2011). Canadian Aboriginal History: Olive Dickason's Story recounts her life. Part 2 of her story can be viewed here  

Film & Video

Broken Promises

YouTube, 2 min 21 sec

Former Chief Elijah Harper, who brought down the Meech Lake Accord, speaks about Treaties and the effect broken promises have on his people.  (Grade 8 and up)

Kanehsatake: 270 Years of Resistance

National Film Board of Canada, 1993. 119 min

From the NFB website:  "On a July day in 1990, a confrontation propelled Native issues in Kanehsatake and the village of Oka, Quebec, into the international spotlight. Director Alanis Obomsawin spent 78 nerve-wracking days and nights filming the armed stand-off between the Mohawks, the Quebec police and the Canadian army. This powerful documentary takes you right into the action of an age-old Aboriginal struggle. The result is a portrait of the people behind the barricades." Scenes of violence, viewer discretion is advised.

Staking the Claim

From the website: "To know who you are, you must first know where you came from.

In the early 1970s, a small group of men and women from Canada’s north sparked a movement for change that would end by changing the course of Canadian history. Over the next thirty years, the settlement of Inuit Land Claims Agreements throughout the Inuit regions would set precedents, change mindsets and – in Nunavut – redraw the map of Canada. But what drove the ‘claim seekers’ and at what cost? If they knew then where their actions would lead, would they have done what they did?

Those questions compelled Stacey, Tommy, Pauloosie and David to journey across the Canadian Arctic to meet the people who have shaped their past. Staking The Claim captures those experiences on film; there are no scripts, no outside interpretations – simply the voices of those who’ve played a part in shaping a legacy conversing with those who will inherit it.

The documentaries, interviews and supporting resources in Staking the Claim reveal a part of Canada’s history that is largely unknown. It is the story of one of our first peoples’ efforts to seek a new relationship with their country. It is the story of a democratic nation willing to negotiate new approaches to governance. It is a story that will shape the future for Inuit and Canada for years to come."

Trick or Treaty?

Alanis Obomsawin, 2014, 84 min 43 s

This feature documentary by acclaimed filmmaker Alanis Obomsawin (Kanehsatake: 270 Years of Resistance) profiles Indigenous leaders in their quest for justice as they seek to establish dialogue with the Canadian government. By tracing the history of their ancestors since the signing of Treaty No. 9, these leaders aim to raise awareness about issues vital to First Nations in Canada: respect for and protection of their lands and their natural resources, and the right to hunt and fish so that their societies can prosper. In recent years, an awareness-raising movement has been surfacing in First Nations communities. In this powerful documentary, those who refuse to surrender are given a chance to speak out.

Supreme Court of Canada makes historical ruling on First Nations Land Claims

Youtube, June 26th, 2014, 2 min 37 s

An historic day for Canada's First Nations. Canada's highest court granted aboriginal land title to more than 1,700 square kilometers of land to the Tsilhqot'in First Nations. This gives the Tsilhqot'in more authority over their entire territory, and not just individual reserves. The ruling could prove to be a game changer for resource development in B.C. and put a kink in plans for the Northern Gateway Pipeline.



Bringing Treaties Into the Classroom 

By Marci Becking, February 2015; Anishnabeck News

An article that looks at the value associated with treaty education in the classroom.  In the article Becking looks at the recent development of a guide titled, "We Are All Treaty People" for teachers on how best to include this content in their courses.  The author analyses how the teachers' kit was received at the recent Miigwewin Education Conference.

"We Are All Treaty People" Teachers' Kit

By the Union of Ontario Indians

A kit for teachers looking to infuse content concerning treaty agreements into their classroom lessons.  The kit includes, DVD, book, Lego activity, posters and more! To watch the kit creator describe its contents and activities, click here. Use this order form available on the Anishinabek Nation website resources page to order a kit.

We Are All Treaty People

A personal essay on by Tamara Williamson, an Anishinaabekwe/Nehayowak who was raised in Gaabishkigamaag, Swan Lake, Manitoba and is a member of the Opaskwayak Cree Nation. From the blog site "Decolonization: Indigeneity, Education & Society".

Treaties in Canada

Manitoba Education, Educational Resources Branch, April 2010.

A list of educattional resources regarding treaties in Canada.

Canadian Race Relations Foundation: Information pages about Aboriginal Treaty Rights Cases in Canada

Includes information about further websites and printed materials about treaties.  (Grade 9 and up)

First Nation Treaty Education in Ontario

Circle of Light 2011: A First Nation, Metis and Inuit Education Conference, November 2011

First Nations and Treaties Map on Ontario

Ontario is covered by 46 treaties and other agreements, such as land purchases by the Crown. These agreements were signed between 1781 and 1930

General Briefing Note on Canada's Self-government and Comprehensive Land Claims Policies and the Status of Negotiations

From the Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development website.

James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement - Social Impact on Crees of James Bay Project

This is a page created by the Grand Council of Crees to highlight the history, environmental and social impacts of the James Bay Project.  


Contested Terrain

For the history teacher – primary source documents on Aboriginal Land Petitions in New Brunswick, 1786-1878. (Grades 11 and 12)

Office of the Treaty Commissioner (Saskatchewan)

A look at the treaties in Saskatchewan and the educational programs being used to teach all students about their treaties rights. (for teachers)

Treaty Relations Commission of Manitoba

This site hosts information about treaties from all over Canada. Pages on each treaty are available, which include links to the text of the actual treaty.

Hul'qumi'num Treaty Group

From the website: The treaty negotiations process provides a framework for the three parties: Canada, BC and First Nations – to work towards the common goal of reconciliation, and building a new relationship, through constitutionally entrenched government-to-government-to-government understandings.


The website of the Anishinabek Nation provides an overview of Ipperwash including its resolution.

From the website: "A Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the Government of Ontario and the Ontario First Nations Political Confederacy was signed in September 2008. The MOU commits the parties to work collaboratively under the “Ipperwash Inquiry Priorities and Action Committee” (IIPAC) to implement the Ipperwash recommendations."

For more resources provided by this site go here.

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