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Publications

Forthcoming Books   |   Published Books   |   Book Chapters   |   Refereed Articles

 

 

AUDIO DRAMA SERIES:

Interviews from Why Theatre Now? 

Jackie Maxwell

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Dr. Gallagher interviews Shaw Festival artistic director and dramaturge, Jackie Maxwell. Shaw Festival, Niagara-on-the-Lake, Fall 2013.

 

John Mighton

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Dr. Gallagher interviews playwright, mathematician, author and JUMP Math founder, John Mighton before an audience at Hart House Theatre. Fall 2013

 
 
Ann-Marie MacDonald

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Dr. Gallagher interviews playwright, novelist, actor, and journalist, Ann-Marie MacDonald. Spring 2013.             

                                    


Published Books

meth dil cover

 

In Defence of Theatre Cover

Why Theatre Matters Book Cover Image

 
The methodological dilemma revisited: Creative, critical and collaborative approaches to qualitative research for a new era
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
In defence of theatre: aesthetic practices and social interventions 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Why theatre matters: urban youth, engagement, and a pedagogy of the real
 
Reviews
 
Duffy, Peter. (July, 2016). Review. [A book review of Why theatre matters: urban youth, engagment, and a pedagogy of the real by Gallagher, K.] Applied Theatre Research, 4(2), p. 175.
 
 
Drama and Theatre in Urban Contexts
 
 
The Methodological Dilemma
 
 
 
Reviews
The theatre of urban
 
The theatre of urban: Youth and schooling in dangerous times
 
Reviews
 
 
 
Rao, Radhika. (October, 2008). Review. [A book review of The Theatre of Urban: Youth and Schooling in Dangerous Times by Gallagher, K.] Harvard Educational Review, 78(3), p. 549.
 
How theatre educates
How theatre educates: Convergences and counterpoints with artists, scholars and advocates
 
Reviews
Neelands, Jonothan. (November, 2005). Review [A book review of How theatre educates. Convergences and counterpoints with artists, scholars and advocates by Gallagher, K. & Booth, D. (Eds.)] Research in Drama Education, 10(3) pp. 377-379. 
 
 
 
 
Drama education in the lives of girls
Performing a living museum of memories: beholding young people’s experiences and expressions of care through documentary theatre-making and oral history performance
Gallagher, K. & King, R. (in progress). Performing a living museum of memories: beholding young people’s experiences and expressions of care through documentary theatre-making and oral history performance. In A. S. Fisher, & J. Thompson (Eds.) Performing Care.
 
An ecology of care:  Relationships and responsibility through the constitutive and creative acts of oral history theatre-making in local communities shouldering global crises
Gallagher, K., Cardwell, N. & Rodricks, D.J. (forthcoming). An ecology of care:  Relationships and responsibility through the constitutive and creative acts of oral history theatre-making in local communities shouldering global crises. In A. Harris, P. Thomson, & K. Snepvangers (Eds.), Creativity education: Policies, partnerships and ecologies. Palgrave-Macmillan.
 
Making and appreciating theatre: Lessons in ethical relationality and prototype expansion
Gallagher, K. & Mealy, S. (forthcoming). Making and appreciating theatre: Lessons in ethical relationality and prototype expansion. In J. Roberts-Smith, S. Ruecker, & M. Radzikowska (Eds.), Proposals for better futures: Prototyping across the disciplines. 
 
Learning on the ground: How our research stories teach us about ethics
Gallagher, K. & Sallis, R. (in press). Learning on the ground: How our research stories teach us about ethics. In P. Duffy, R. Sallis, & C. Hatton (Eds.), Drama research methods: Provocations of practice. Sense Publications.
 
Staying the course and 'here to question': Envisioning education at Tarragon Theatre as an integral goal and a reciprocal practice
Gallagher, K. & Wessels, A. (in press). Staying the course and 'here to question': Envisioning education at Tarragon Theatre as an integral goal and a reciprocal practice. In M. Anderson, & M. Finneran (Eds.), Education and theatres: Innovation, outreach and success. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.
 
Creating a self: Towards a theory of selfhood, relationality, and youth as cultural producers
Gallagher, K & Mealey, S. (in press). Creating a self: Towards a theory of selfhood, relationality, and youth as cultural producers. In Suzanne Burgoyne (Ed.), Creativity theory and action in theatre and drama education. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.
 
Queridos amigos en Bogotá 
Gallagher, K. (2017). Queridos amigos en Bogotá (trans. Jorge Arcila). In A. Cortés Salcedo, & J. Arcila (Eds), Uaque: Práticas, éticas, estéticas e afectivas para la con-vivencia escolar. Bogotá Mejor: Para Todos.
 
Politics and Presence: A Theatre of Affective Encounters
Gallagher, K. (2016). Politics and Presence: A Theatre of Affective Encounters (pp. 67-82). In Gallagher, K., & B. Freeman (Eds.) In Defence of Theatre: Aesthetic Practices and Social Interventions. Toronto, Buffalo, London: University of Toronto Press. 
 
Introduction: Taking a Step Back
Gallagher, K. (2016). The Micro-political and the Socio-Structural in Applied Theatre with Homeless Freeman, B. and Gallagher, K. (2016). Introduction: Taking a Step Back. (pp. 3-18). In Gallagher, K., & B. Freeman (Eds.) In Defence of Theatre: Aesthetic Practices and Social Interventions. Toronto, Buffalo, London: University of Toronto Press.        
 
The Micro-political and the Socio-Structural in Applied Theatre with Homeless Youth
Gallagher, K. (2016). The Micro-political and the Socio-Structural in Applied Theatre with Homeless Youth. In H. Nicholson & J. Hughes (Eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Applied Theatre. Cambridge University Press.                
 
Navigating the Emotional Terrain of Research: Affect and Reason by Way of Imagination 
Gallagher, K. (2016). Navigating the Emotional Terrain of Research: Affect and Reason by Way of Imagination. In M. Zembylas & P. Schutz (Eds.), Methodological advances in research on emotion and education. Springer. 
 
The Middle Place: Creating Intimacy with an Audience
Gallagher, K (2016). The Middle Place: Creating Intimacy with an Audience. In H. Fitzsimmons-Frey (ed.) Ignite: Illuminating Theatre for Young People (pp. 3-10). Toronto: Canada Playwrights Press.
 
Voix citoyennes dans un monde en crise
Gallagher, K. (2016). Voix citoyennes dans un monde en crise. Théâtre et éducation dans le monde: De nouveaux territoires d'utopies (pp. 41-47). Paris: Lansman Editeur. 
 
Like a River...
Gallagher, K. (2015). Like a river... Foreword for Carter, M. M. Prendergast & G. Belliveau (eds.) Drama, Theatre and Performance Education in Canada: Classroom and Community Contexts. Canadian Association for Teacher Education/Canadian Society for the Study of Education. PolyGraph Ebook. ISBN: 978-0-9947451-1-8 Online 2015.
 
Performing Patriarchy: Indian Girls (En)Gender a Social Imaginary
Gallagher, K. (2015). Performing Patriarchy: Indian girls (en)gender a social imaginary. In. J. Kennelly, & S. R. Poyntz (Eds.), A Phenomenology of Youth Cultures: Meaning and Retrieval in an Era of Globalization. SUNY Press.
 
Chasing Change: Drama Education, Applied Theatre and the Ecology of Social Change
Gallagher, K. (2015). Chasing Change: Drama Education, Applied Theatre and the ecology of social change. In H. Fitzsimmons-Fry, & A. Babayants (Eds.), Theatre and Learning. Cambridge University Press.
 
Poetry, Metaphor and Performance: Literacy as a Philosophical Act
Gallagher, K. (i2015). Poetry, metaphor and performance: Literacy as a philosophical act. In J. Rowsell and K. Paul. (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Literacy Studies. Routledge.
 
The Place of Bodies in the Order of Things
Gallagher, K. (2015). The place of bodies in the order of things. Forward in M. Perry, & C. Medina (Eds.), Methodologies of Embodiment: (In)scribing Bodies in Qualitative Research. New York: Routledge.                
 
Responsible Art and Unequal Societies: Towards a Theory of Drama and the Justice Agenda
Gallagher, K. (2015). Responsible Art and Unequal Societies: Towards a Theory of Drama and the Justice Agenda. In M, Finneran & K. Freebody (Eds.), Drama & Social Justice: Theory, research and practice in international contexts. Routledge. 
 
Drama and the Literacy of Lives in Progress
Gallagher, K. (2015). Drama and the Literacy of Lives in Progress. In Rowsell, J. and Sefton-Green, J. (Eds.) Revisiting Learning Lives: longitudinal perspectives on researching learning and literacy (pp. 164-182). New York: Routledge.
 
On the Pedagogical Importance of (Not) Knowing the Other: Listening, Risk, Drama and Difference
Gallagher, K & B. Yaman Ntelioglou. (2013). On the pedagogical importance of (not) knowing the other: Listening, risk, drama and difference. In M. Anderson & J. Dunn (Eds.), How Drama Activates Learning: Contemporary Research and Practice (pp. 94-108). London: Continuum, Bloomsbury Academic.
 
(Lesbian) M/Otherhood as Contradiction: Love, Sexuality, and other (Imagined) Wonders
 
Conceptual, Epistemological and Methodological Challenges in Hypermedia Ethnography: A Boon for Ethnographic Analysis
Gallagher, K. & Freeman, B. (2012). Conceptual, epistemological and methodological challenges in hypermedia ethnography: A boon for ethnographic analysis. In S. M. Silva & P. Landri (Eds.), Rethinking education ethnography: Researching on-line communities and interactions (ISBN: 978-989-8471-04-8). Porto: CIIE - Centro de Investigação e Intervenção Educativas.
 
Imagining Drama/Theatre and the Arts
Gallagher, K. (2012). A re-publication of Gallagher, K. (2005). Imagining Drama/Theatre and the Arts. In Leithwood, McAdie, Bascia and Rodrigue (Eds.), Teaching for Deep Understanding: Towards the Ontario curriculum that we need. Toronto: Corwin Press. (To be republished in R. Purnima International Perspectives on Theatre Arts. India.)
 
Putting Inner City Students First: Six Case Studies
Gallagher, K., R. Riviere, J. Flessa, J. Cummins, C. Fusco, S. Niyozov, & S. Stille. (2011). Putting Inner City Students First: Six Case Studies. In M. Evans & C. Rolheiser (Eds.), Inquiry into Practice (pp. 108-122).

Theatre as Methodology or, What Experimentation Affords Us
Gallagher, K. (2011). Theatre as Methodology or, What Experimentation Affords Us. In Schonmann S. (Ed.), Key Concepts in Theatre/Drama Education (pp. 327-331). Rotterdam/Boston/Taipei: Sense Publications.

Ethnography in School-Based, Performance Research: A Conversation with Kathleen Gallagher
 
Introduction
 
 
Moving Towards Postcolonial Methods in Qualitative Research: Contexts, Cameras, and Relationships

Excerpt from and new introduction to The Theatre of Urban: Youth and Schooling in Dangerous Times
Gallagher, K. (2008). Excerpt from and new introduction to The Theatre of Urban: Youth and Schooling in Dangerous Times. In B. Barton (Ed.), Collective Creation, Collaboration and Devising. Critical Perspectives on Canadian Theatre in English Volume 15. (pp. 182-189). Series General Editor: Ric Knowles. Toronto: Playwrights Canada Press.

Building Theories of Their Lives: Youth Engaged in Drama Research
Gallagher, K. and Lortie, P. (2007). Building Theories of Their Lives: Youth Engaged in Drama Research. Thiessen, D. and Cooke-Sather, A. (Eds.), International Handbook of Student Experience in Elementary and Secondary School (pp. 405-438). Springer Publishing.

Conceptions of Creativity in Drama Education
Gallagher, K. (2007). Conceptions of Creativity in Drama Education. In Bresler, L. (Ed.), International Handbook of Research in Arts Education (pp. 1229-1240). Springer Publishing.

(Post) Critical Ethnography in Drama Research
Gallagher, K. (2006). Critical Ethnography in Drama Research. In Ackroyd, J. (Ed.), Research Methodologies for Drama Education (pp. 63-80). London: Trentham Books.

La Fin de Siecle and the Pull of Opposites
Gallagher, K. (2005). La Fin de Siecle and the Pull of Opposites. In MacDonald, A. Belle moral: A natural history (pp. 3-10). Toronto: Playwrights Canada Press and the Academy of the Shaw Festival. Second edition by Vintage. Reprinted in the Canadian Theatre Encyclopedia.

Imagining Drama/Theatre and the Arts
Gallagher, K. (2005). Imagining Drama/Theatre and the Arts. In Leithwood, McAdie, Bascia and Rodrigue (Eds.), Teaching for Deep Understanding: Towards the Ontario Curriculum That We Need. Toronto: Corwin Press.

Emergent Conceptions in Theatre Pedagogy and Production
Gallagher, K. (2003). Emergent Conceptions in Theatre Pedagogy and Production. In How Theatre Educates: Convergences and Counterpoints with Artists, Scholars and Advocates (pp. 3-13). Toronto, Buffalo, London: University of Toronto Press.

Girls in the Company of Girls: Social relations and identity construction in single-sex drama education
Gallagher, K. (2002). Girls in the Company of Girls: Social relations and identity construction in single-sex drama education. In Datnow, E. and L. Hubbard (Eds.), Gender in Policy and Practice: Perspectives on Single Sex and Coeducational Schooling (pp. 264-279). New York: Routledge Falmer.

Theater and Drama
Gallagher, K. (2002). Theater and Drama. In Robert Kastenbaum (Ed.), Two-Volume Encyclopedia of Death and Dying (vol. 2) (pp. 888-891). New York: Macmillan Reference USA. 

Girls, Experience, and Voice
Gallagher, K. (1998). Girls, Experience, and Voice. In Booth, D. and Neelands, J. (Eds.), Writing in Role: Classroom projects connecting writing and drama (pp. 141-154). Hamilton: Caliburn Enterprises, Inc. 

 

Refereed Articles

A Reconsideration of Social Innovation: Drama Pedagogies and Youth Perspectives on Creative and Social Relations in Canadian Schooling

Drawing from a multi-sited, global ethnography on youth civic engagement and artistic practices, the author uses students’ perceptions from one Canadian high school, as they reflect on their experiences in a drama classroom, to ask what we might learn about the macro discourses and processes of social innovation from the local, artistic, and collaborative activities of young people. Learning from young people that they do not imagine themselves as the coherent social grouping our institutions have imagined them to be raises questions about the role educational institutions might be playing in developing and activating plural and progressive forms of sociality and social innovation more broadly.

 

 

Beyond mimesis to an assemblage of reals in the drama classroom: which reals? Which representational aesthetics? What theatre-building practices? Whose truths?

In this paper, the authors argue for novel, less mimetic, ways to harness ‘the real’ in drama practices. They study particular youth theatre-making practices in a Toronto secondary classroom, both successes and failures, to make the case for an untethering of ‘the real’ from realism’s representational aesthetics. They further track the more relational aesthetics at play for a group of young theatre-makers in their context of a multi-sited, global ethnography of youth civic engagement and theatre-making practices. Instead of mirroring reality, some of the devising work of the young people refracts, fragments, and multiplies it, making a strong case for the artistic, political, and educational value of an assemblage of reals in the drama classroom, in so-called post-truth times.

Gallagher, K., & Jacobson, K. (2017). Beyond mimesis to an assemblage of reals in the drama classroom: which reals? Which representational aesthetics? What theatre-building practices? Whose truths? RiDE: Research in Drama Education: The Journal of Applied Theatre and Performance, Online, 1-16. 

Hope despite hopelessness: Race, gender, and the pedagogies of drama/applied theatre as a relational ethic in neoliberal times

In this article, we demonstrate how theatre pedagogy was mobilized, and to what effects, in one Toronto drama classroom which was strongly divided along racial lines. Using the work of Diane Reay (2012) and Tara Yosso (2005) in particular, among other theorists and social commentators, as well as data from a multi-year, multi-sited global ethnographic research project of drama classrooms, we offer two micro-encounters from our data to illustrate how drama pedagogy both reproduced and interrupted the established classroom social relations of race and gender for seven different youth, provoking them to negotiate who they are, what they know, and the world in which they live. Through these micro-encounters, we demonstrate how youth can shift the landscape of traditional learning and explore avenues where different, relational, socially embedded, and more complex intersectional (Crenshaw 1989; Collins 2015) possibilities for “having” a voice may exist.

Gallagher, K., & Rodricks, D. J. (2017). Hope despite hopelessness: Race, gender, and the pedagogies of drama/applied theatre as a relational ethic in neoliberal times. Youth Theatre Journal, 31(2), 114-128.

The gendered labor of social innovation: Theatre, pedagogy, and the girl-child in India

In this article, I will examine how a pedagogical and creative practice in one school for lowest-caste girls in Lucknow, India was harnessing the imaginative affordances of theatre—in particular, its ensemble-building and its capacity to hold the present open for investigation—to leverage these practices for understanding the political economy and deconstructing the structural forces of gender oppression in times of growing social and economic inequality. The concept of social innovation has, over recent years, provoked much academic and policy debate across a range of disciplines, yet it has been relatively under-studied in the field of education. This article makes a case for theatre specifically, and education more broadly, as a critical driver of social innovation and change, and uses an empirical example from ethnographic research in Lucknow, India where the ongoing gendered oppression of young women urgently calls for radical societal reform.

Gallagher, K. (2017). The gendered labor of social innovation: Theatre, pedagogy, and the girl-child in India. Review of Education, Pedagogy, and Cultural Studies, 1-16.

According to the United Nations, in many countries, available indicators show that the girl-child is discriminated against from the earliest stages of life, through her childhood and into adulthood. In some areas of the world, men outnumber women by five in every 100. The reasons for the discrepancy include, among other things, harmful attitudes and practices, such as female genital mutilation, son preference—which results in female infanticide and prenatal sex selection—early marriage, including child marriage, violence against women, sexual exploitation, sexual abuse, discrimination against girls in food allocation and other practices related to health and well-being. As a result, fewer girls than boys survive into adulthood (see United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women 1995

United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women. 1995. “Action for Equality, Development and Peace. The Girl-Child Diagnosis.” The United Nations Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing, China, September. Accessed June 2, 2017.http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/beijing/platform/girl.htm. [Google Scholar]).

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Drama in education and applied theatre, from morality and socialization to play and post-colonialism

The field of drama education and applied theater is best understood through a consideration of the major developments and aspirations that have shaped its trajectory over three historical periods: the latter years of the 19th century up until 1960, between 1960 and 1990, and the years encompassing the turn of the 21st century, 1990–2015, which was a decidedly more globalized epoch. The drama education/applied theater scholarship of the English-speaking world, including the United Kingdom, Europe, Australia and New Zealand, and North America, offers a fascinating distillation of the relationship between making drama and learning, including the history of alternative forms of education. Scholarship from Asia drawing on traditional forms of theater-making, as well as imported and adapted structures of Western drama education movements, speak to hybrid and ever-expanding practices across the globe.

Although young as a discipline within the academy, drama education/applied theater has all but made up for its relative immaturity by spanning a wide domain of multidisciplinary thinking, embracing an eclectic theoretical field that covers an enormous breadth of social issues and a vast range of learning theories, while straddling a compelling spectrum of political positions. The development of the field is infused with pioneering ideas that broke with entrenched historical traditions and habitual ways of learning, harkening toward new ways of thinking, being, relating, and creating. Taking the world as its source material and humanity as its target audience, the history of the progressive discipline of drama education/applied theater tells the story of an ambitious, flawed, idealized, politicized, divisive, and deeply humanistic scholarly and practice-driven field.

Gallagher, K. Rhoades, R. Bie, S and Cardwell, N. (2017). Drama in education and applied theatre, from morality and socialization to play and post-colonialism. In G. Noblit (Ed.), Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Education. New York: Oxford University Press. 

Performing to understand: Cultural wealth, precarity, and shelter-dwelling youth 

Collaborating with Project: Humanity, an acclaimed socially engaged theatre company, we mobilized, over 16 weeks, an applied theatre methodology of drama workshops and traditional qualitative research methods to explore issues of spatialized inequality and localized poverty with a youth shelter community in Toronto, Canada. Observations gleaned through drama activities provided graphic evidence of the multiple and overlapping socio-economic pressures and limited infrastructural and personal support experienced in their young lives. In this article, we use critical race theory to trouble majoritarian narratives of access, capacity, and success. In particular, Yosso’s [2005. “Whose culture has capital? A critical race theory discussion of community cultural wealth.” Race, Ethnicity, and Education 8 (1): [69–91] typology of ‘community cultural wealth’ has allowed us to reconsider the idea of ‘capital’ as it is exploited by youth in creative engagement with the material precarity of their daily existence.

Gallagher, K. and Rodricks, D. (2017). Performing to Understand: Cultural Wealth, Precarity, and Shelter-dwelling Youth. Research in Drama Education: The Journal of Applied Theatre and Performance. Special Issue. 

Performing counter-narratives and mining creative resilience: using applied theatre to theorize notions of youth resilience

As part of a nationwide study of growing socio-spatial inequality, researchers collaborated with a Toronto youth shelter and a theatre company, Project: Humanity, to use drama methods to explore local manifestations of poverty and social polarization. Together, shelter-dwelling youths and researchers challenged understandings of ‘resilience’ beyond their normative framings that fail to consider youth perspectives. Provoking affective encounters, the drama methodology activated a youth critique of structural inequalities and a peer mentoring for developing tactics to confront incidents such as unwelcome police interactions. The authors propose the concept of creative resilience, which draws from the idea of the ‘ensemble’ in drama, to collectively devise and rehearse strategies of survival and resistance for application in the real world. Such creative and critical improvised encounters catalyse, they further argue, a critical-affective stance in participants, facilitators, and researchers. Such a critical-affective stance demands theoretical sophistication in the analysis of empirical accounts because it values affect as constitutive to knowledge production. Using an illustrative case, the authors put forward a new theoretical frame for youths resilience as an ensemble practice. The findings of this study support the experiential and cultural knowledge of youth as critics and agents of resistance in the face of growing global socio-spatial inequality.

Gallagher, K., Starkman, R., & Rhoades, R. (2017). Performing counter-narratives and mining creative resilience: using applied theatre to theorize notions of youth resilience. Journal of Youth Studies, 20(2), 216-233.

Can a classroom be a family? Race, space, and the labour of care in urban teaching

This article reports on findings from a case study of an eighth-grade teacher in an innercity school in downtown Toronto, Canada. It investigates the teacher’s pedagogical use of the metaphor of “family,” using interview data to underscore the effects produced by such an operating logic in a classroom. Methodologically, the article puts forward a novel analytic strategy to keep in dynamic interplay the relationship between how a teacher conceptualizes her teaching practice and where she locates those ideas. By focusing in-depth on one teacher’s pedagogical relations in the classroom, the article aims to better understand how teachers position the ubiquitous notion of “care” in their practice and how they enact “community” in their classrooms and in the larger schools and neighbourhoods in which they work. In this case study, the concepts and experiences of race and space are considered centrally in the examination of a racialized teacher’s pedagogical practices in a diverse and socio-economically marginalized school. The study has important implications for teacher education, inviting us to more explicitly acknowledge the salience of race in our conceptions of “care” and the investment of time and emotion that is demanded when practising politically conscious caring in teaching.   

Gallagher, K. (2016). Can a classroom be a family? Race, space, and the labour of care in urban teaching. Canadian Journal of Education/Revue canadienne de l'éducation, 39(2), 1-36.

The social habitus of drama: the Ontario drama curriculum in theory and practice

In this article, the author considers the place of drama in the formal curriculum in Ontario, Canada by considering its position in relation to curriculum theory and the texts that formally articulate it as a discipline to be taught in schools. The drama curriculum in Ontario aims to engage young people in activities and experiences that invite them to contemplate the diverse world in which they live and learn, to examine and question perspectives, and to consider issues of power and exclusion. These aspirations sit interestingly alongside considerations of the drama curriculum as exalted and rebuked by teachers, instructional leaders, and arts coordinators in a large school board in Toronto, Canada.

Gallagher, K. (2016). The social habitus of drama: the Ontario drama curriculum in theory and practice. Research in Drama Education: The Journal of Applied Theatre and Performance, 21(1), 20-36.   

All gender is a performance, all performance gendered

This article reflects on the chapters featured in a special edition of Research in Drama Education: The Journal of Applied Theatre and Performance focused on gender and sexuality. The article explores the terms and concepts of issue, the body, and alternative pedagogies in relation to the chapters in the edition and personal experience. The article concludes that human rights lie in the heart of the edition as the "issues" of gender and sexuality are at play culturally, pedagogically, politically, and performatively.

In this article, the author considers the place of drama in the formal curriculum in Ontario, Canada by considering its position in relation to curriculum theory and the texts that formally articulate it as a discipline to be taught in schools. The drama curriculum in Ontario aims to engage young people in activities and experiences that invite them to contemplate the diverse world in which they live and learn, to examine and question perspectives, and to consider issues of power and exclusion. These aspirations sit interestingly alongside considerations of the drama curriculum as exalted and rebuked by teachers, instructional leaders, and arts coordinators in a large school board in Toronto, Canada.

"Listening to the affective life of injustice": Drama pedagogy, race, identitity and learning

This article draws from three different ethnographic research projects situated in Canadian urban and suburban drama classrooms in which the student population is highly diverse linguistically, culturally, racially, and ethnically. In each of these classes, as students engage in discussion in and out of role, some of the unsettling events of their lives concerned with the “affective politics” of race come to light. We critique notions of consensus and demonstrate, through our examples, the central importance of the drama classroom space as one that ignites discussion and engages divergent opinions and feelings. To analyze these events, we draw upon Frantz Fanon and Sara Ahmed who acknowledge how different bodies experience the power relations associated with emotion differently.
 
 
Between the frames: Youth spectatorship and theatre as curated, 'unruly' pedagogical space
 
In this article, we consider the aesthetic, political and pedagogical strengths of a verbatim theatre performance, The Middle Place by Project: Humanity, a play that explores the experiences of shelter youth in Toronto, Canada. This ethnographic study moved from drama classrooms into theatres and charted audience responses to the production, its pre- and post-show programming and the company’s curation of the theatre space. Using data from post-performance interviews with youth, we analyse how young people articulate the impact of socially engaged theatre. And pulling from ethnographic fieldnotes and researcher email correspondence, we further illustrate how the mere presence of youth and shelter youth at the theatre altered the ways in which audiences interacted with the play and the extended programming, disrupting the usual social contract of theatre-going. Project: Humanity’s intentional mix of social classes and ages among the audience created encounters that have much to teach us about theatre’s ability to unleash the ‘unruly’ and to artistically re-create a world highly recognisable to those who inhabit it.
 
 
Becoming a networked public: Digital ethnography, youth, and global research collectives
 
The following article describes a research context that has privileged both virtual and place-based ethnographic fieldwork, using a hybrid methodology of live and digital communications across school sites in Toronto, Canada; Lucknow, India; Taipei, Taiwan; and Boston, USA. The multi-site ethnographic study is concerned with questions of school (dis)engagement, as experienced by young people often marked as 'disadvantaged' and 'marginal' to the traditional practices of schooling. Throughout the paper we illustrate, and argue for, the productive use of such methods that combine the live and the digital while also advocating for more methodological experimentation in the processes of fieldwork and analysis. To substantiate our argument for hypertextual and multimodal modes of ethnographic engagement, we offer, in the first section of the paper, examples from face-to-face meetings that generatively combine live discussion and digital video methods. At the same time, we problematise the limits of such exchanges, acknowledging the challenges of trying to map one another’s contexts and living conditions through the aesthetic prism of digital video, drama performance and ethnographic interviews. In the second section of the paper, we shift our focus to three illustrative episodes from our Toronto and Lucknow sites. Drawing on theorists Sarah Pink and Patti Lather and Chris Smithies, we bring reflexive analyses to bear on participant-created video texts and Verbatim theatre performances, reading these data as narrative constructions that reveal multiple perspectives rather than literal, representative truths. We further argue that as student participants take control of their drama performances and digital video creations, focusing on the contours of their daily lives, they become co-constructors of an emerging youth knowledge base across these global sites. Drawing on the work of Wendy Morgan, who observes the changing power relations made possible through hypertextual digital media, we maintain that as these students create both live and digital performances and make meaning through discussion and ethnographic interviews, they shift relations of power, inviting researchers into a 'networked community' premised upon a fluctuating virtual, live, and digitally mediated culture.
 
 
Verbatim theatre and social research: Turning towards the stories of others
 
This paper analyses the convergence of ethnographic research and Verbatim theatre in both the context of an urban secondary school drama classroom and in two professional theatres in the city of Toronto. This four-year international, digital, collaborative ethnography focuses on performance and its relationship to youth engagement. As part of the larger project, this paper analyses data gathered in the school research site that charted youth reactions to a Verbatim theatre workshop and performance of The Middle Place, a powerful Verbatim play about shelter youth, created by the socially committed theatre company, Project: Humanity. Additional digital data included the subsequent videotaped youth-created Verbatim monologues. The research team also followed Project: Humanity into two professional theatres in Toronto (Theatre Passe Muraille and Canadian Stage) where youth and adult audiences, fresh from seeing The Middle Place, were interviewed about the play, cultural representations of youth, and theatre as a form of social intervention. The third data set occurred back in the classroom of our school research site, where the The Middle Place filtered back into student drama work in surprising ways. To analyse these data, we bring performance theory, Brechtian theory, relational art theory and Foucault’s concept of ‘parrhesia’ to address the ethics of representing trauma and the possibility of ‘fearless speech’. In responding theatrically, these youth offered our research valuable glimpses into the subcultures of urban youth and their theatre-making practices. 
 
 
Multi-site ethnography, hypermedia, and the productive hazards of digital methods: a struggle for liveness
 
This article explores the possibilities and frustrations of using digital methods in a multi-sited ethnographic research project. The project, Urban School Performances: The interplay, through live and digital drama, of local-global knowledge about student engagement, is a study of youth and teachers in drama classrooms in contexts of schooling marked as 'disadvantaged' in research sites in Toronto (Canada), Lucknow (India), Taipei (Taiwan) and Boston (USA). The authors first outline the place of digital methods in the research, describing how software such as Adobe Connect and Survey Monkey, as well as a project Wiki and blog, enabled some virtual communication among and within research sites. They go on to suggest that their experience with these methods exposed the significant limitations of the technology, but also that coming up against these limitations posed useful questions about the nature of specific research methods and about the overall priorities of the study. As an example, the article focuses on how digital methods have usefully complicated available conceptions of 'liveness,' an important dimension both of live performance and of ethnographic fieldwork. Despite their skepticism about the promise of new technologies, the authors conclude that their experience valuably relocated research analysis from post-facto interpretation to an ongoing negotiation with method in the field.
 
 
Roma refugee youth and applied theatre: Imagining a future vernacular
 
This paper examines an experiment in theatre-making with a group of Roma refugee youth currently living in Toronto, Canada. A drama academic, a professional theatre director, an Executive Director of a Roma Community Centre, two Hungarian translators and nine Roma youth worked together to cross language and cultural borders in order to place theatre-making in a broader socio-political arena. Their primary goal was to awaken public officials, and a general public, to a better understanding of the youth's experiences of 'home' and migration in order to garner support for their claims for refugee status. Using cultural geography, community-engaged public pedagogy and feminist science as different disciplinary lenses and theoretical frames through which to make sense of the tensions of such collaborative theatre projects, the author positions the work as a 'theatre of little changes' (Balfour 2009) ultimately worth engaging in.
 
 
Emergent pedagogy and affect in collaborative research: A metho-pedagogical paradigm
 
The widespread turn towards ‘collaboration’ in qualitative research methodologies warrants careful and continuous critique. This paper addresses the possibilities and the challenges of collaborative methodology, and in particular what happens when the line between pedagogy and methodology is blurred in classroom-based ethnographic research. Troubling the prized notion of collaboration, and decoupling the easy relationship drawn between collaborative, participatory methods and empowering, democratic research experiences, we draw upon empirical data from one site in a multi-site, international ethnographic project: Urban School Performances: The Interplay Through Live and Digital Drama, of Local–Global Knowledge About Student Engagement. In underscoring some tensions and conflict in the creation of a Verbatim Theatre unit, we analyse significant affective encounters that surfaced in the course of our research work. Mobilising feminist post-structuralism and current theories of affect, we question the privileging of voice as an unmediated and authentic phenomenon, while ultimately arguing for the importance of affect and emotion in ethnographic analysis and for persistent reflexivity in the negotiation of collaborative metho-pedagogical work.
 
 
Which new literacies?: Dialogue and performance in youth writing
 
Measurements of literacy learning in schools, the authors argue, have settled into static and individualized understandings of what should be the most invigorating and social aspect of schooling for youth. By contrast, this article explores the place of aesthetic, dialogic, and performative forms of literacy in the adolescent classroom by excavating ethnographic data from an urban multicultural high school. Close examination of student writing, field notes, and teacher interviews illustrates how the space of the drama classroom creates a laboratory for experimentation with many forms of "new literacies" through rich engagements with the lives inside and the worlds beyond the classroom. The authors reason that drama pedagogies are both creative and critical forms of literacy that offer empirical weight to newer theories of literacy and lead to new modes of theorizing the multiple acts of literacy in schools.
 
 
In search of a theoretical basis for storytelling in education research: Story as method
 
In this article, the author argues that storytelling is centrally important to education research. The proliferation of narrative methodologies, albeit significant and innovative in the evolution of qualitative studies in education, has, nonetheless, not been accompanied by a theoretical body that has captured the complexities – ethical and methodological – inherent in such work. Despite a presumed emancipatory inclination, one might reasonably argue that storytelling in education research has frequently produced reactionary and imperialistic accounts. Turning to some of the works of Hannah Arendt and Bertold Brecht, two theorists of great storytelling capability, the author considers how their methodological thinking might be productively imported. Finally, the author draws some lines between these methodological innovators and the kind of empirical research that would most clearly profit from their more politicized and theoretically engaged considerations of the art of storytelling.
 
 
Off the beaten track: A reflection on intention and unpredictability in arts education research
 
The coherence of a 'research program' is often betrayed by the unanticipated turns and detours in arts research. The following article reflects upon the place of the unexpected in arts research, the alternative ways in which knowledge or ‘findings’ are often constructed, and the complexity of calibrating or measuring arts research for broader publics. UNESCO's road map is seen here as a site for further deliberation, a point in time and space that should engage arts communities in rousing dialogue — locally and globally — about the convergences and divergences of our practices and research paradigms.
 
Gallagher, K. (2010). Off the Beaten Track: A reflection on intention and unpredictability in arts education research. Encounters on Education, 11: 35-43.
 
Applied theatre at the heart of educational reform: An impact and sustainability analysis
 
This article reports on an impact assessment study, conducted between 2007 and 2009, of the Elementary Teachers’ Federation of Ontario’s (ETFO) Poverty and Education Project, an intervention which encouraged educators to challenge their assumptions about poverty and explore collaborative opportunities to mitigate the effects of poverty in their schools. A touring theatre production (Danny, King of the Basement), professional development in drama, supporting curriculum documents, and other financial and material resources were provided by the Federation to a selection of schools serving students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds across the province. Our purpose was to understand the impact and sustainability of an applied theatre intervention on a school’s ability to address the issue of local poverty effectively. Our findings report on the role that the applied theatre intervention played in effecting change in relationships, initiating dialogue, and deepening understanding of social issues. Our analysis demonstrates that the applied theatre intervention had a positive effect on pedagogical relationships and acted as a catalyst in opening up dialogue between teachers and students, helping both to explore new conceptions of teaching and learning in communities facing economic challenges.
 
 
"It could have been so much better": The aesthetic and social work of theatre
 
In this paper, the authors consider early results from their ethnographic research in urban drama classrooms by parsing the aesthetic and social imperatives at play in the classroom. Moved by the observation that teachers and students alike seem to be pursuing elusive aesthetic and social ideals, the authors draw on Judith Butler’s notion of 'melancholia' to explain the feeling of disappointment that sometimes follows difficult drama work  the sense, as a teacher in one of the research sites put it, that "it could have been so much better."Reflecting on a larger international research project, 'Urban School Performances: The interplay, through live and digital drama, of localglobal knowledge about student engagement' (USP) project, the authors illustrate and theorise this concept of disappointment using qualitative data from two urban Toronto drama classrooms. On the surface, one of these sites was focused on aesthetics and the other on social development, but the authors dig deeper to consider the subtler values and outcomes that are made available by ethnographic research. This partly leads to a consideration of how students, teachers and researchers alike are each burdened with a responsibility to ‘perform’ and ‘advocate’.
 
 
Theatre pedagogy and performed research: Respectful forgeries and faithful betrayals
 
Proponents of theatre-based research presentations — called, variously, performed ethnography, ethnodrama, arts-based research — often argue that knowledge is both presented and disseminated more powerfully and effectively than is the case with the conventional research report, scholarly article, or book. This article looks at some of the ways in which this kind of performance works on us aesthetically and pedagogically. And ethically, the author suggests that performances of qualitative research might be productively understood as respectful forgeries and faithful betrayals. While theatre might hold exciting possibilities for critical teacher development, the author also raises some important questions about the implications of this kind of work for the preparation of (drama) teachers. 
 
 
When drama praxis rocks the boat: Struggles of subjectivity, audience and performance
 
This article examines the particular strength of theatre to raise questions about relations of gender and race. The authors consider the 'rights' of youth and teachers in schools to use drama to critique their cultural contexts and connect these educational struggles to those of broader political, cultural, and social democratic life. The empirical work examined addresses the implications of challenging normative constructions of racial and gendered subjectivity in urban schools within the context of youth performances of both the social and artistic kind. The theatre experiences and 'controversial theatre productions' discussed in this article challenge notions of 'official multiculturalism' and ask questions about how - and to what effects - drama 'rocks the boat' in contemporary struggles of social cohesion and social justice.
 
 
I.D.ology and the technologies of public (school) space: An ethnographic inquiry into the neo-liberal tactics of social (re)production
 
This paper explores spatial theory, and particularly a Foucauldian analysis of space, power, and the subject, as a frame within which to examine moves toward security in North American urban schools. We bring into play empirical data from an ethnographic study of New York City and Toronto schools where policies and technologies of record-keeping, identification-verifying, and spatial arrangements are producing altered experiences of subjectivity and the ways in which youth, workers, and researchers experience public (school) space. What is possible to know in ethnographic studies of these new high-security school sites? We argue that notions of 'risk' and 'otherness' in the nation state, and the exploitation of real fears in the wake of real school violence, have permitted a culture of acute surveillance that significantly alters the enterprise of school- based, ethnographic research.
 
 
Sexual fundamentalism and performances of masculinity:  An ethnographic scene study
 
The study on which this paper is based examined the experiences of students in order to develop a theoretical and empirically grounded account of the dynamic social forces of inclusion and exclusion experienced by youth in their unique contexts of North American urban schooling. The ethnographic scenes, organized into four 'beats,' theatrically render the cultural performances of youth and researchers in the context of a diverse urban drama classroom. In this classroom, students, teacher, and researchers engage in a lively and often disturbing debate. Questions about the ways in which sexuality and other identity markers are socially constructed and performed, how the moral, gendered and discoursed cultures created in classrooms re-inscribe historical inequities are central to the ethnographic scenes, drawn from field notes, researcher reflections, interview transcripts, and the epilogue which follows. Aspects of youth culture, performance (cultural and artistic), the construction of identities — particularly in relation to theories of masculinity and the (heterosexual) 'pass' — are deconstructed in the epilogue. 
 
 
Pink…with shades of grey: Mediating moments of diversity in urban secondary classrooms
 
In this paper, the authors trace the policy documents and legislation in Canada that have set, over the last twenty years, the context for 'inclusion' in Ontario's public schools. The authors then enliven this historical account of multicultural policy innovation by turning to a particular critical episode in a secondary classroom wherein they consider the pedagogical strategies of a teacher in a drama classroom who deftly navigates the unsettled terrain of race and power. Using a provocative monologue set in South Africa's apartheid, the teacher opens up a space for dialogue and whole-group interaction with her class of Grade 11 (16-17-year-old) students. Serving as an illustrative episode from a larger ethnographic study of four school sites (2 Canadian, 2 American), the analysis here, of one teacher's interactions with her students, and the students' engagement with one another, points to many of the features of drama pedagogy that elucidate the study's broader interests in understanding the problems of social cohesion in richly diverse urban schools. In this discussion, the aims of inclusion and the possibilities of interactive pedagogy are clear, as are their limits, in the charged public space of an urban classroom.
 
 
Theories of the stage, social projects, and drama's pedagogies
 
Jean-Paul Sartre's philosophical writings on the theatre and Bertold Brecht's theatre for instruction inform this investigation of drama's pedagogies. The paper questions what the matrix of theatre and pedagogy might mean for education and, most especially, education for inner-city youth. Entwining modern and postmodern conceptions of theatre and education, the author makes a case for a pedagogy of situation and action, presenting a set of pedagogical ambitions concerned with creating more complex and humane social interactions in urban drama classrooms. 
 
Gallagher, K. (2003). Theories of the Stage, Social Projects, and Drama's Pedagogies. International Drama in Education/Applied Theatre Researcher Journal, 4
 
Tabula Rasa: Starting afresh with classroom drama
 
An action research collaboration investigating the implementation of pedagogical and curricular change in an Ontario grade eight classroom led researchers to unanticipated and valued findings. The vehicle of drama for the teaching of a new History curriculum methodologies that redistributed power and redefined roles among grade eight students. Working "in role" and critically reflecting on practice often uncovers "surprising" findings when practitioners are able to systematically "think their practice" (Freire, 1998) and create possibilities for learners to challenge previous assumptions about classroom achievement. The approach taken in this study fostered democratic principles in classroom teaching and learning, and the subsequent representation of classroom-based inquiry. The group's well-established social order was contested when drama became a new way to succeed for three of the classroom's most academically challenged students. 
 
Gallagher, K. (2001). Tabula Rasa: Starting afresh with classroom drama. Applied Theatre Researcher, 2.
 
The everyday classroom as problematic: A feminist pedagogy
 
The title of this article is borrowed and adapted from Dorothy Smith's authoritative text, "The Everyday World as Problematic: A Feminist Sociology." The basic premise of Smith's work is that sociology, as a discipline, has operated largely outside women's experiences and has, despite this, been used as a means of measuring, understanding, and articulating the experiences of women. Likewise, the "everyday classroom" has traditionally operated within patriarchal structures and used practices which have not taken up girls' experiences as distinct and unique. Therefore, problematizing the pedagogical lens, as Smith has problematized the social sciences we have used to study human relations, leads to, in Smith's case, new feminist research strategies in the field, and in the case of pedagogy, new classroom practices and a view of curriculum which addresses girls' experiences in necessary ways. Conventions and strategies used in a single-sex, Grade 10 drama classroom are described in order that the propositions concerning inclusive, feminist pedagogy are grounded in classroom practice. 
 
 

Refereed Articles (no abstracts available) 

Beckoning hope and care
 
Theatres of affect. Edited by Erin Hurley. New Essays on Canadian Theatre, Vol. IV. Toronto, ON: Playwrights Canada Press, 2014.
Gallagher, K. (2015). Theatres of affect. Edited by Erin Hurley. New Essays on Canadian Theatre, Vol. IV. Toronto, ON: Playwrights Canada Press, 2014. Theatre Research International, 40(2): 206-207.
 
Contesting space and power through digital drama research: Colonial histories, postcolonial interrogations
 
The aesthetics of representation: Dramatic texts and dramatic engagement
 
"How does knowin' my business make you any safer?": Critical pedagogy in dangerous times
 
The art and politics of qualitative research in drama education: Creating culture, representing 'reality'
Gallagher, K. (2004). The Art and Politics of Qualitative Research in Drama Education: Creating culture, representing 'reality'. Drama Research, 4(1): 3-18.
 
Dramatic arenas for ethical stories
 
The staging of qualitative research: Authorship, ownership and artistic expression in social science inquiry
Gallagher, K. (2001). The Staging of Qualitative Research: Authorship, ownership and artistic expression in social science inquiry. Journal of Curriculum Theorizing (JCT), 17(3): 145-156.
 
Being in the World with Drama: Interrogated identification
Gallagher, K. (2001). Being in the World with Drama: Interrogated identification. Institute for Women’s and Gender Studies University of Toronto, 6: 1-22.
 
Action Research in the Intermediate Classroom: Learning history through drama
Gallagher, K. and Blaney, J. (2001). Action Research in the Intermediate Classroom: Learning history through drama. Drama Research, 2: 49-69.
 
Interrupting "truths," engaging perspectives, and enlarging the concept of "human" in classroom drama
 
The influence of drama education on the action of curriculum
Gallagher, K. (1999). The Influence of Drama Education on the Action of Curriculum. Curriculum and Teaching: International Journal of Curriculum and Teaching, 14(1): 21-29.
 
Essentially Different: Creative drama and the politics of experience in girls' education
Gallagher, K. (1997). Essentially Different: Creative drama and the politics of experience in girls' education. National Journal of Drama in Education (NJ), 21(2): 17-31.
 
 

 

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