Changing Workplaces in a Knowledge Economy (CWKE)

Publications & Conferences Presentations

Data Archived in Canada Work Learning Surveys 1998-2016

The CWKE data archive contains codebooks, questionnaires and survey data for analyses conducted in “Changing Workplaces in a Knowledge Economy: Occupational Class Structure, Skill Use and the Place of Professions in Canada”. The CWKE project was funded by SSHRC Insight Research Grant 435-2015-0732.

Canada Work Learning Surveys 1998-2016 Available Data.

The basic data information provided in this archive include several national labour force surveys:

  • CCS1982NationalSurvey
  • NALL1998NationalSurvey
  • WALL2004NationalSurvey
  • WALL2010NationalSurvey
  • CWKE2016NationalSurvey

as well as two 2017 case study surveys:

  • CWKE2017EngineeringSurvey
  • CWKE2017NursingSurvey

With regard to all the national surveys, the data sources files include a comparative template for common variables in the 1982, 1998, 2004, 2010 and 2016 national surveys, a more detailed integrated codebook for the 1998-2010 surveys and codebooks for specific surveys. In addition, the original questionnaires and several versions of the basic data in different formats (Excel; CSV; SPSS; Tab Delimited) are provided in the archive. Further information on the 1982 CCS survey is also available.

The fullest overview of the project may be found in the main book publication:

Livingstone, D.W., Adams, T. & Sawchuk, P. (2021). Professional power and skill use in the 'Knowledge Economy': A class analysis. Leiden: Brill.

This is the first systematic analysis of the class structure of professionals. Their growing numbers, including mainly non-managerial professional employees as well as self-employed professionals, professional employers and professional managers, have been conflated in most prior studies. In this book, evidence comes from a unique series of large-scale surveys since the 1980s as well as recent comparative case studies of engineers and nurses. A primary focus is on issues of job control and skill utilization among these knowledge workers widely regarded as pivotal to the sustainability of knowledge economies. Professional employees in particular are found to face declining job control, diminishing use of their skills and increasing barriers to continuing learning. There are many original benchmarks here to serve as guides for further studies on professional classes, job design and training strategies in advanced capitalist economies.

Other easily accessible published papers include:

Those interested in using the national survey data series should be able to access the data directly from the dataverse archive. For further assistance, please contact:

David Livingstone –

Those interested in using the engineering or nursing case study survey data can consult the questionnaires and codebooks in this archive. Access to these specific data sets can be provided with permission of the lead investigators:

The new national survey coupled with trend analyses using the few comparable prior national surveys and more in-depth studies of professionals, and engineers in particular, will permit unique insights into the extent of change in the general occupational class structure, the extent of general skill use/under-utilization, and the recognition of specialized skills. This project will provide essential benchmarks for future research and policy. In this period widely claimed to be transformative of relations between work demands and training requirements, this evidence will be of vital aid for policy-making aimed at improving job design, occupational training, and optimal use of the general and specialized skills of the Canadian labour force.

Contact Us

To learn more about Changing Workplaces in a Knowledge Economy (CWKE) please email D.W. Livingstone at

Additional Notes