Journal Articles


Khan, R., Wilton, L., Brett, C., & Alexander, P. (2020). Chapter 15: Private interactions in online learning discussions: Instructor perspectives. Handbook of Research on Online Discussion-Based Teaching Methods. IGI Global Publishing.

Demmans Epp, C., Phirangee, K., Hewitt. J. & Perfetti, C. & (2020). Learning management system and course influences on student actions and learning experiences.  Educational Technology Research and Development, 68(6), 3263-3297.

Raman, P., Avery, P., Brett, C. & Hewitt, J. (2020). Exploring the use of #Hashtags as an easy entry solution to enhance online discussions. International Journal of E-Learning & Distance Education 35(1).

Avery, T., *Makos, A., *Sarguroh, W., *Raman, P., Brett, C. & Hewitt, J. (May 31, 2020). This is why we do it! Using a design based approach to optimize student learning in an online discussion based course. International Journal of E-Learning & Distance Education 35(1).


Wilton, L. (2019). Quiet Participation: Investigating non-posting activities in online learning. Online Learning Journal, 22(4).


Wilton, L. (2018). Quiet Participation: Investigating non-posting activities in online learning.Online Learning Journal, 22(4).


Demmans Epp, C., Phirangee, K., Després-Bedward, A., & Wang, L. (2017). Resourceful instructors and students: Overcoming barriers to integrating mobile tools. In Power, R., Ally, M., Cristol, D., & Palalas, A. (Eds), IAmLearning: Mobilizing and Supporting Educator Practice. [e-Book]. International Association for Mobile Learning.

Demmans Epp, C., Phirangee, K., & Hewitt, J. (2017). Talk with me: Student behaviours and pronoun use as indicators of discourse health across facilitation methods. Journal of Learning Analytics, 4(3), 47–75.

Demmans Epp, C.; Phirangee, K. & Hewitt, J. (2017). Student actions and community in online courses: The roles played by course length and facilitation method. Online Learning, 21(4), 53-77.

Phirangee, K. & Malec, A. (2017). Othering in Online Learning: An Examination of Social Presence, Identity, and Sense of Community. Special Issue on Social Presence and Identity in Online Learning. Distance Education, 38(2), 1-12.


Phirangee, K. (2016). Students' Perceptions of Learner-Learner Interactions that Weaken a Sense of Community in an Online Learning Environment. Special Issue: AERA Online Learning and Teaching SIG. Online Learning Journal, 20(4), 13-33.

Phirangee, K., Demmans Epp, C., & Hewitt, J. (2016). Exploring the relationships between facilitation methods, students’ sense of community and their online behaviours. Special Issue on Online Learning Analytics. Online Learning Journal, 20(2).

Phirangee, K. & Hewitt, J. (2016). Loving This Dialogue!!!! 🙂 : Expressing Emotion Through the Strategic Manipulation of Limited Nonverbal Cues in Online Learning Environments. In S. Tettegah and M. McCreery (Eds.), Emotions, Technology, and Learning (vol. 1). New York: Elsevier.


Makos, A., Lee, K., & Zingaro, D. (2015). Examining the characteristics of student postings that are liked and linked in a CSCL environment. British Journal of Educational Technology 46: 1281-1294.

Oztok, M., Zingaro, D., Makos, A., Brett, C., & Hewitt, J. (2015).Capitalizing on social presence: the relationship between social capital and social presence.Internet and Higher Education, 26, 19-24.


Houtman, E., Makos, A., & Meacock, H-L. (2014). The intersection of social presence and impression management in online learning environments.E-Learning and Digital Media, 11(3).


Oztok, M., Wilton, L., Lee, K., Zingaro, D., MacKinnon, K., Makos, A., Phirangee, K., Brett, C., & Hewitt, J. (2013). Polysynchronous: Dialogic construction of time in online learning. Journal of E-Learning and Digital Media, 2.

Lee, K. & Brett, C. What are student inservice teachers talking about in their online Communities of Practice? Investigating graduate student inservice teachers’ experiences in a double-layered CoP. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 21(1), 89-118.

Oztok, M. (2013). Tacit knowledge in online learning: community, identity, and social capital. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 22(1), 21–36.

Oztok, M., Zingaro, D., Brett, C., & Hewitt, J. (2013). Exploring Asynchronous and Synchronous Tool Use in Online Courses,Computers & Education, 60(1), 87–94.


Zingaro, D., & Oztok, M. (2012). Interaction in an Asynchronous Online Course: a Synthesis of Quantitative Predictors. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 16(4), 71–82.

Zingaro, D. (2012). Student Moderators in Asynchronous Online Discussion: a Question of Questions.Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, (8)3.


Oztok, M. & Brett, C. (2011). Social presence and online learning: A review of the research. The Journal of Distance Education, 25(3), 1-10.

Wilton, L., & Noel, T. (2011). Avatars: Usefulness in collaborative online learning environments. Collected Essays on Learning and Teaching, IV.


Brett, C. (2009). Educational Perspectives on digital communications technologies. Journal of E-Learning, 6(3), 281-291.

Brett, C., Forrester, B., & Fujita, N. (2009). Learning journals as an instructional and self-assessment tool for epistemological growth in online learning. Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology, 35(1), 1-18.

Hewitt, J. (2009). Toward an understanding of how threads die in asynchronous computer conferences, Journal of the Learning Sciences, 21, 14:4, 567-589.


Hewitt, J., Brett, C. & Peters, V. (2007). Scan Rate: A new metric for the analysis of reading behaviors in asynchronous computer conferencing environments. American Journal of Distance Education, 21(4), 215-231.

Hewitt, J., & Brett, C. (2007). The relationship between class size and online activity patterns in asynchronous computer conferencing environments. Computers and Education, 49, 1258-1271.


Hewitt, J. (2003). How habitual online practices affect the development of asynchronous discussion threads. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 49(28),1, pp. 31 – 45.